Epidemiological Alerts Archives, 2003–2008
(Note: Series renamed, formerly EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas.)
The purpose of these alerts is to disseminate information on the latest public-health events that have been identified as risks to health, trade, and/or international travel. Most of these events are primarily due to infectious agents, while others are due to chemical or physical agents. The PAHO Epidemiological Alerts published at the regional level (for the Americas) complement the WHO Disease Outbreak News published at the global level. The latest issues can be found at the new site, 2009 onwards.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 6, No. 3 (6 February 2009)
This issue provides an update of the dengue situation in Bolivia, current actions being taken in surveillance, response, and disease and vector contro; and PAHO's role in providing support for these activities.
PAHO promotes behavior change to combat DENGUE in the Region
Asuncion, Paraguay. 10 February 2009.- PAHO Director at a press conference during the PAHO Subregional Managers' Meeting of Southern Cone and Andean (SRMM).
[only in Spanish] “Creo que tenemos el conocimiento y la estrategia que funciona, pero todavía nos falta ese cambio de comportamiento. Tenemos que encontrar los caminos para hacer que la gente no entre en pánico ni alarma, ni trate de buscar al culpable afuera porque definitivamente el culpable está dentro, muchas veces, dentro de las casas”, sostuvo.
Director's Newsletter - SRMM
11th International Dengue Course (Havana, Cuba, 11-21 August 2009)
This course is dedicated to strengthening capacities in dengue control and prevention. Its objective is for participants--physicians, virologists, immunologists, sociologists, epidemiologists, entomologists, health managers, among others interested in this field, along with many professors from several prestigious international institutions--debate on the most relevant and updated aspects of this disease. The IPK is a PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center. It covers a broad range of theoretical and practical topics. Other IPK events
2008: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2008 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report with subregional subtotals and information on serotypes. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.
Integrated Vector Management (IVM)
Vector control is well suited for integrated approaches because some vectors are responsible for multiple diseases, and some interventions are effective against several vectors. The concept of IVM was developed as a result of lessons learned from integrated pest management, which is used in the agricultural sector; IVM aims to optimize and rationalize the use of resources and tools for vector control. This resource page links to WHO materials on IVM and to PAHO materials on vector-borne diseases (VBDs).
Network of PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centers and National Reference Laboratories for Dengue in the Americas
One of the objectives of PAHO/WHO is to strengthen diagnostic laboratory networks in the Region and promote exchange and technological transfer among them. For each institution, by country, the list below includes a general information sheet describing the objectives, mission and vision, publications, and research projects of each PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center and National Reference Laboratory involved in diagnosing dengue in the Americas. At the end of each sheet is a link to a questionnaire on the laboratories' capacity, the techniques they use, and the networks in which they participate.
PAHO Communicable Disease Research Program (CDR)
This page offers the user basic information and a variety of resources in the area of research in infectious diseases: mandates, program description, PAHO guides for researchers submitting proposals and reports, links to its WHO counterpart and to the PAHO Research Grants Program as well as to donor institutions and related sites, international awards, announcements of conferences and publications, upcoming events, etc.
CD48/13 - Integrated Vector Management: A Comprehensive Response to Vector-borne Diseases
CD48/13Integrated Vector Management: A Comprehensive Response to Vector-borne Diseases
International Health Regulations (IHR)
The International Health Regulations are an international legal instrument that covers measures for preventing the transnational spread of infectious diseases. The newly adopted IHR (2005) has as purpose and scope “to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade”. This page provides a detailed description and information on progress of its implementation, plus relevant links.
10 Facts about Neglected Tropical Diseases
These ten facts provide a basic overview on what constitutes neglected tropical diseases and what is being done to combat them.
Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.
The Macro and Micro World of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti: You need to know it before you can fight it!
This non-narrative video from Brazil is uniquely composed of images on the lifecyle of A. aegypti, the vector transmitting dengue and yellow fever. As such it is not dependent on language, only on visual filming of how mosquitoes breed, are born and live in area occupied by humans--information that rarely reaches communities. Each minute of this film correspondes to two days in the life of the mosquito.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 5, No. 9 (26 March 2008)
This issue provides information on the increase in dengue and dengue hemorrhagic cases in several Brazilian states, focusing on Rio de Janeiro and on current measures being taken to fight the disease.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 5, No. 8 (21 March 2008)
This issue reports on how the Ministry of Health has created a crisis office to deal with the escalation in the number of dengue cases in Rio de Janeiro.
2007: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2007 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report with subregional subtotals and information on serotypes. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.
VPH News (Year 1, No. 2, September/October 2007)
This issue covers: Information, Knowledge and Responsibility; Russian Mission Evaluates the Brazilian Veterinary Public Service, Visits of the General Director of the WHO and of the Representative of OIE; Manual on FMD; PANAFTOSA at CONBRAVET, Animal Welfare, Avian Influenza, Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas, Animal Protection, Quality of Food in Paraguay; Course on Control of Wild Rabies; Acknowledgements, Great Cross, Commander Medal, Merit; World Rabies Day; Day of the Veterinarian.
CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible,
appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 9 (26 September 2007)
This issue summarizes the 2007 outbreaks of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic in the countries of the Americas and the efforts made to fight the disease. It offers various maps and graphics, information on the serotypes in circulating, etc.
Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (New England Journal of Medicine, 357: 10, September 6, 2007)
The neglected tropical diseases are a group of 13 major disabling conditions that are among the most common chronic infections in the world's poorest people. A blueprint for the control or elimination of the seven most prevalent neglected tropical diseases has been established by a group of private, public, and international organizations working together with pharmaceutical partners and national ministries of health. Through the newly established Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases, with updated guidelines for drug administration issued by WHO, partnerships are coordinating their activities in order to launch a more integrated assault on these conditions.
Global Plan to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2008–2015
The WHO Global Plan to Combat NTDs Global Plan has been formulated according to the following key principles: the right to health; existing health systems as a setting for interventions; a coordinated, multi-disease response by the health system; integration and equity; and intensified control of diseases alongside pro-poor policies. This page contains the executive summary plus a link to the full text.
Tackling Neglected Diseases in Latin America
This page links to two Biomedical Center (BMC) Public Health articles, one a commentary on improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America and the other, an article on prevention, control, and elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas.
The International Dengue Task Force: Dedicated to the Fight against Dengue
This task force was put into place to implement the new Integrated Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Dengue. This page describes how the group was formed, what it proposes to do, and its different components.
2006: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2006 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report and with regional subtotals. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.
A Turning Point 2007: Report of the Global Partners' Meeting on Neglected Tropical Diseases (Geneva, Switzerland, 19-20 April 2007)
An estimated one billion people--one sixth of the world’s population--are infected with one or more neglected tropical diseases. These diseases are largely ancient infectious diseases that thrive in impoverished settings, especially in the heat and humidity of tropical climates. This meeting of 200 key international partners declared to the world that control of these diseases deserves high priority on the global public health agenda and still greater determination to deliver appropriate health care to the millions of poor people in need.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 8 (16 April 2007)
This issue provides details on how the dengue outbreak in Paraguay is continuing to subside.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 7 (15 March 2007)
This issue follows up on the dengue epidemic in Paraguay and on measures taken to contain it. It shows three graphs and a data table and provides information on ongoing technical cooperation activities by PAHO and by the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean to contain this outbreak.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 6 (9 March 2007)
This number provides follow-up on the dengue outbreak in Brazil, which continues to be concentrated in the midwestern region in Mato Grosso do Sul state, with a predominance of DEN-3. Data is provided by region and state.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 5 (7 March 2007)
This issue focuses on the dengue outbreak in Bolivia, where the majority of cases are being reported from the vicinity of the tropical city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. It includes a statistical graph on dengue incidence from 2006 to 2007.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 4 (12 February 2007)
This issue focus on dengue activity in Brasil, with an overview of the national situation and special focus on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which has experienced a notable increase. It also contains a graph on activity in the states from 2006 to 2007 and a map showing the various states and regions of the country.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 3 (9 February 2007)
This issue follows up on the dengue outbreak in Paraguay, which is nine-tenths concentrated in the capital city of Asunción and one-tenth in the rest of the country. It contains a graph with statistics and two maps showing case distribution in the country and in the capital.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 2 (8 February 2007)
This issue focuses on the dengue outbreak in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. It includes a statistical graph on dengue incidence from 2005 to 2006.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 4, No. 1 (29 January 2007)
This issue focuses on the dengue outbreak in Paraguay: prevention and control measures, vector control, mass communication, Dengue Day, and external technical cooperation.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 3, No. 3 (31 December 2006)
This issue provides details on the dengue outbreak that occurred in Paraguay in 2006. It includes statistical tables, a map, and an account of border activities.
Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control (3rd ed.)
The objective of this handbook is to ensure the safe and correct application of a residual insecticide to indoor surfaces on which vectors may rest. Indoor residual spraying is extensively used, especially for malaria and Chagas disease vector control. However, vector control programmes frequently lack well-trained field staff to apply the insecticides and to maintain the application equipment. With good skills and quality application equipment, hazards to human health and the environment, as well as financial losses, can be avoided. It can be used as a model to develop training materials in the countries.
10th International Dengue Course: 20 Years Strengthening Capacities (6-17 August 2007)
Symposium: 25 Years of Struggling against Dengue (9-11 August 2007)
In a regional context of increased dengue activity and the co-circulation of more than one serotype, since 1987 the three specialized PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centers in Cuba have been jointly holding a biannual dengue course with the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute (IPK), the Cuban Ministry of Public Health and PAHO. The course objective is to bring together a broad multidisciplinary spectrum of specialists in this field to debate on the the most relevant and updated aspects of this disease. The Symposium is aimed at providing a space where participants can acquire an updated vision of the most recent discoveries and advances in dengue and DHF, by facilitating and encouraging the exchange among the participants and prestigious world-renowned specialists.
Lula Calls for the Population to Get Involved in the Fight against Dengue: National Campaign to Fight Dengue Launched in Brazil under the Slogan, Don't forget: you have to keep fighting dengue every day!
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva gave his official support for popular involvement in eliminating breeding sites of Aedes aegypti, the vector responsible for transmitting dengue. Lula backed the need for all of society to get involved in public-health activities on the occasion of the country's National Day to Mobilize against Dengue, held on 18 November 2006.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 3, No. 2 (31 October 2006)
This issue provides an update on the recent outbreak of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in El Salvador.
EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas, Vol. 3, No. 1—24 October 2006
This issue covers the recent outbreak of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Cuba.
Dengue (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page offers basic information and access to WHO research resources on dengue. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) have emerged as a major public-health problem. The primary vector mosquito, in the Americas primarily Aedes aegypti, has spread throughout the tropics and into susceptible human populations in urban areas. The urbanization process has created new breeding grounds for the vector and has hastened the spread of the disease. Vector control has not halted the explosion in transmission and major efforts are underway to implement an integrated multisectoral approach.
Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (WHO Fact Sheet No. 117)
This official fact sheet offers basic information of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection which in recent years has become a major international public health concern. It is found in tropical and subtropical regions, predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas. Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a potentially lethal complication, was first recognized in the 1950s during the dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand, but today DHF affects most Asian countries and has become a leading cause of hospitalisation and death among children in several of them. Integrated prevention and control efforts are underway in the Region.
The Burden of Neglected Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean Compared with Some Other Communicable Diseases
This graph makes a case for increased attention to neglected diseases by illustrating their tremendous disease burden as compared to other communicable diseases that receive a higher level of attention from health systems.
2005: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2005 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report and with regional subtotals.
This page offers the user a panoramic view of all PAHO materials on dengue, organized according to the following categories: surveillance, prevention and control, PAHO activities, Other PAHO Materials, and General Information/Links. It also contains a listing of featured items for all categories with the most important documents from each, and a side bar with links, frequently requested items, upcoming events, and/or new books.
Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.
Investing in Global Health: 'Best Buys' and Priorities for Action in Developing Countries
These three new volumes from the World Bank Disease Control Priorities Project--Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (2nd ed.), Priorities in Health, and Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors--are part of an ongoing initiative to provide technical resources to improve the health systems, and ultimately the health of people, in developing countries.
Priorities in Health
Two overarching themes emerge from the extensive research and analyses in this World Bank publication: (1) Current resources can yield substantial health gains if knowledge of cost-effective interventions were applied more fully. (2) Additional resources are needed in low-income countries to minimize the glaring inequities in health care. Increased resources would provide highly-effective interventions, expand research, and extend basic health coverage to more people. WHO contributed to this publication.
This information published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States (CDC, a PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center), helps orient travelers on anything they should know and precautions they should take when travelling to a given country.
International Travel and Health
This page links to WHO information related to international travel, helping to orient travellers as to the situation regarding disease prevalence or outbreaks in a given country and what precautions they should take. It provides an index by country, related links, and information on relevant publications.
Vth Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Amazon Countries
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies:
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.
2004: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2004 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report and with regional subtotals. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.
2003: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This document provides tabular data for 2003 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas, by country and subregion and with regional totals, and by week reported. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.
Safety of Pyrethroids for Public Health Use
Pyrethroids are widely used in public health because of their relative safety for humans, high insecticidal potency at low dosages and rapid knock-down effects. WHO has assessed the safety and efficacy of pyrethroids for different applications in vector control, as well as in disinsection of aircrafts. The purpose of this document is to critically review current knowledge on the safety of pyrethroids and whether existing WHO recommendations for pyrethroid applications should be revised or modified. (This review does not consider the use of pyrethroids in space spraying and vapour applications, e.g. in mosquito coils and aerosols.)
Global Insecticide Use for Vector-Borne Disease Control (2nd ed.)
Vector control constitutes an important element in the current global strategy for the control of major vector-borne diseases, and chemical control remains an important element in an integrated approach to vector control. This publication attempts to document the use of insecticides for vector control at the global level concerning the evelopment of guidelines on safe and effective use of insecticides and on resistance management, agreements for international use of insecticides, investment for development of alternatives, and review and formulation of policies for insecticide usage at different levels.
Public Health Pesticide Management Practices by WHO Member States: Report of a Survey, 2003–2004
Survey objectives were to study key features of public health pesticide management practices by WHO Member States; assist national and international organizations in developing activities to address weaknesses in their management practices; and serve as a baseline for monitoring progress in such activities. In the Americas, 14 countries responded comprising 55% of the at-risk population for major vector-borne diseases: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay. The Caribbean Epidemiology Centre / CAREC assisted with data collection and validation.
Guidelines for Laboratory and Field Testing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets
The purpose of this document is to provide specific and standardized procedures and guidelines for testing long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) for personal protection and malaria control. It is intended to harmonize the testing procedures carried out to generate data for registration and labelling of such products by national authorities.
Guidelines on Situation Analysis for Public Health Pesticide Management
The objectives of this 2005 publication by WHOPES, the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, is to provide guidance in the performance of a situation analysis aimed at identifying the weaknesses, strengths and needs for strengthening a country's public health pesticide management practices. It identifies the key steps in the planning process and outlines a methodology for such analysis.
Community Participation and Health Education for Dengue Control: A Collaborative Project between PAHO and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
The objective of this project is to strengthen dengue prevention and control in Central American countries through the implementation of public-education and community-participation activities as well as consensus-building for the Central American Comprehensive Plan for Dengue Prevention and Control.
Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 17 No. 4, April 2005
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 17 No. 4, April 2005
VIth Meeting of the Southern Cone Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 4–5 March 2005)
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies:
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.
9th International Course on Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (Havana,
Each year PAHO is involved, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Cuba and the IPK (and this year with TDR), in the organization and promotion of the international course on dengue. The main goal of the course is to provide a forum for discussion through theoretical and practical sessions in which the participants will have the opportunity of attending lectures by prestigious international institutions specialized in the field of Virology, Epidemiology, Vector Control, Immunology, Sociology and Medical Care with particular experience on Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. In addition, participants will review the most relevant and up-to-date facts on this disease. The multidisciplinary approach of this course makes it the most complete training program on Dengue offered worldwide.
Planning Social Mobilization and Communication for Dengue Fever Prevention and Control: A Step-by-Step Guide
A major obstacle to effective implementation of selective, integrated mosquito control has been the inability of ministries of public health to mobilize and coordinate the resources needed to achieve and sustain behavioural impact among populations at risk of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF). This guide offers a comprehensive and innovative managerial insight to planning social mobilization and communication for behavioural impact (COMBI strategy). This page offers access to an abstract, executive summary, and the full-text guide complete with tools.
Successful Experiences in Disease Control in Brazil Presented at Expoepi (Brasilia, 23-26 November 2004)
The Ministry of Health of Brazil and the Department of Health Surveillance (SVS), with PAHO participating, held the 4th National Exhibit on Successful Experiences in Epidemiology and Disease Prevention and Control (Expoepi). The objectives of the event, the most important in its area in all Brazil, were to exhibit and award actions implemented in the cities and states that had a positive impact on the prevention and control of diseases of importance to public health, by improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance.
Regional Core Health Data System - Indicators Glossary
Definition, technical note, type, measure units, categories, and subcategories for each indicator in the Regional Core Health Data System
CD45.R8: Disaster Preparedness and Response
This report from the PAHO Directing Council lays forth the Organization's mandate for emergency and disaster preparedness and response in hospitals, clinics, and primary-care facilities in the Americas.
Guidelines for Integrated Vector Management
The WHO Regional Office for Africa was the first to develop a framework to orient the implementation of Integrated Vector Management (IVM). The technical materials in this 36-page document are designed to guide the implementation process. There are additional sections on operational research, partnerships, sustainability, capacity-building and community mobilization.
WHO Position on DDT Use in Disease Vector Control under the Stockholm Convention on Persistant Organic Pollutants
This two-page WHO fact sheet, designed for posting and quick reference, declares its position on DDT in relation to the Stockholm Convention on Persistant Organic Pollutants (POPs) and which governs the use of DDT at the international level.
10 Things You Need to Know about DDT Use under the Stockholm Convention
This two-page WHO color fact sheet, perfect for posting and quick reference, provides the guidelines established by the United Nations Environment Programme at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), governing the use of DDT.
PAHO Regional Program on Dengue
This page describes the PAHO Regional Program on Dengue, based in Panama: its mission and areas of work, encompassing the new Integrated Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, the Communciation for Behavioral Impact (COMBI) strategy, the global dengue surveillance network Dengue-Net, and its partnership with the International Network of Eco-Clubs.
Frequently Asked Questions on the Proposed Revision of the International Health Regulations (IHRs)
These 21 questions have been made available to the countries for the revision process of the International Health Regulations (IHRs) currently in progress. The revisions will be discussed and ratified during the upcoming World Health Assembly in May 2005.
WHO: IHR FAQs
Third Joint Meeting of the Networks for Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 26-28 February 2004)
The objectives of this yearly meeting were (a) to present and discuss subregional activities carried out by the EID surveillance networks; and (2)
to identify commitments and activities for the period 2004/2005, taking into account the guidelines of the plans of action of each one of them. This page provides the executive summary and access to the 124-page report in PDF, with links to the individual chapters.
Risk Perception and Strategies for Mass Communication on Dengue in the Americas
The general strategy for preventing and controlling dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever is based on promoting behavior changes that lead to incorporating the community in controlling the disease, particularly the vector. In order to achieve this, mass communication programs on dengue should have two primary aims: converting information into practice and encouraging the community to take over prevention and control measures, based on local sanitation structure, community organizations, the roles of different family members, and PAHO's decalogue of key practices. This page offers the abstract of the article with a link to the Pan American Journal of Public Health, where it was published.
Guidelines for Integrated Vector Management: Needs Assessment
Implementation of the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy requires evaluation of technical and capacity needs of implementing countries. This 32-page document provides guidelines and identifies barriers and gaps for improving vector-control programs, with an eye to the African Region: methodology, procedures, questionnaire, and a guide for conducting national stakeholders' meetings.
Resolution CD44.R9: Dengue
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003 sets forth the mandate for the struggle against dengue in the Americas.
CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.
Integrated Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control
This 16-slide PowerPoint presentation unveils PAHO's new integrated strategy for approaching dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), both an emerging menace to public health in the Region. It was presented at the 44th PAHO Directing Council in September 2003 and is related to Resolution CD44r9 passed on this occasion.
WHO, List of Links on Communicable Diseases (by topic)
This list of links gives the user direct access to the main WHO pages on the various communicable diseases or on themes related to them.
Report: Workshop on Dengue Burden Studies (Washington, DC, 5-7 November 2002)
The objective of this meeting was to review, refine and prepare study proposals to define the epidemiologic, economic and social burden of dengue illnesses. Expected outcomes are several finished country-level budgeted proposals for the study of the burden of dengue. Studies include Asia and Latin America. This page offers the full-text conference report (in small easy-to-view segments), with executive summary, report proper, notes and guidelines, a graph, contact information of participants, etc.
Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control
This WHO guide is meant to instruct pest-control workers on how to safely and effectively administer residual insecticides. It was published in 2002 by WHO Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication as part of the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, to provide uniform international standards for administration of pesticides to eliminate insects/vectors that transmit disease in an indoor setting. This summary links to the full-text WHO report.
WHO Disease Outbreak News
This link provides access to the latest WHO updates and archives on disease outbreaks throughout the world.
Dengue in El Salvador
In recent months the endemic dengue disease has gotten worse in El Salvador, turning into a national priority. In light of this situation, the President has declared a state of emergency caused by Dengue in several departments. Although, the PAHO/WHO Representative Office in El Salvador is helping with these efforts, the resources are limited and necessary. For this reason, the Pan American Health Organization is calling on the international community to cooperate with this event.
List of Participants: 4th Meeting of the Emerging Disease Surveillance Network of the Southern Cone (Asunción, Paraguay, 30 May—1 June 2001)
This list of experts in emerging and reemerging diseases in the Southern Cone (and also of the attending CDC and PAHO area specialists) is included for networking and exchange purposes.
Dengue: How are we doing?
The incidence of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has grown in the Americas, following the same pattern as in Asia with a lapse of 30 years. This presentation also cites the Resolution of the PAHO Directing Council, which established a model for the prevention and control of dengue, showing the countries how to depart from vertical models to horizontal ones. It cites the ten items--the Decalogue--of the Integrated Strategy that resulted from the Resolution and was approved by the PAHO Member States en September 2001. (MS Powerpoint presentation, 63 slides, 3,068 KB)
WHA55.17: Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Prevention and Control
This resolution from the World Health Assembly is the foundation for PAHO's mandate in the struggle against dengue in the Americas.
2nd Joint Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Diseases in the Amazon and Southern Cone Regions (Atlanta, 23-24 March 2002)
Rapidly-spreading diseases from the group known as emerging infectious diseases require surveillance systems endowed with great sensibility allowing for immediate action to impede outbreak propogation or to control epidemics. In this context, a new paradigm of global cooperation has been established, where the objective is to reach common goals, work as a team, maintain a constant channel of communication, and know how to detect abnormalities.
This page offers PDF access to the full-text conference report, with country reports and disease recommendations organized separately.
2001: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
These data tables for 2001 show the number of reported, confirmed cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion.
Framework: New Generation of Dengue Prevention and Control Programs in the Americas
This document offers a blueprint for new-generation dengue prevention and control programs, that PAHO uses as a guide for its institutional mission to provide technical cooperation to promote strategies and interventions, support to strengthen member-state capacity, and guide health policy in its role as international leader to advance public health in the Region. This document offers a summary in HTML and the e-book in PDF files.
CD43.R4: Dengue and Dengue Hemorraghic Fever
Resolution adopted during the 43rd Directing Council, Washington, DC, 26 September 2001, to establish the PAHO mandate for combatting dengue and DHF.
The History of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in the Region of the Americas, 1635-2001
In the effort to more fully understand the history of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the region of the Americas, the documents offered on this page were formulated and compiled.
CE128.R13 - Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Resolution adopted during the 128th Executive Committee in Washington, DC, June 2001. It lays the foundation for the PAHO mandate for dengue.
4th Meeting of the Emerging Disease Surveillance Network of the Southern Cone (Asunción, Paraguay, 30 May—1 June 2001)
The movement of people throughpout the world currently constitutes an important risk factor for diseases spreading from one place to another. It requires both organization and communication to confront the ever-growing threat of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (EID)in the Region. The objectives of this meeting were to renew contacts and maintain communication among laboratories, generate minimal information, identify areas in need of strengthening, plan the future and incorporate other illnesses or problems that require attention or prioritization, and design prevention and control strategies. This page offers access to the recommendations as well as the full-text conference report in PDF, with instant access to individual country and disease data.
2000: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country)
This table show the number of reported, confirmed cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas during the year 2000, by country and subregional, with regional totals, and according to week noted.
Disaster Chronicles: El Niño 1997-1998 (only in Spanish)
Now that we are in a period "between Niños," it would be extremely useful to revisit the 1997/1998 phenomenon and draw from the experiences and lessons learned, so we can better prepare ourselves for the next episode. This book, available only in Spanish, is a technical and institutional retrospective of El Niño's effect on the health sector, showing the extent to which the 1997/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affected daily life and public health in most Latin American countries.
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Crónicas de desastres: Fenómeno El Niño
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Drains & You: A Manual for Drainage Maintenance Workers
This manual is useful not only for drainage workers engaged in cleaning and repairing secondary drains, working for ministries and local governments, but also for the general public in making them aware of the role drains play in public health and safety. In the latter sense, it serves as a social-communication tool to raise community awareness of the general public of domestic-sanitation issues and their effect on public health. This page offers the entire manual for field use, with chapters downloadable in PDF.
1999: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country)
This data table shows the number of reported cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in the Americas for 1999, by country, according to week noted.
Proceedings of the CAREC/PAHO Sub-Regional Dengue Meeting, Port of Spain Trinidad, June 1-3, 1999
The objectives of the Dengue Meeting were as follows: to further sensitive Regional Directors of Vector Control of the seriousness of the emerging issues of Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in the Caribbean; to help strengthen programs in the region for increased action for surveillance, prevention and control of the vector(s) and of dengue/DHF; to receive and to discuss regional country reports on their dengue control/elimination programs; to analyse and discuss the results of a Sub-Regional Dengue Questionnaire; to review the PAHO draft document "A Blueprint for Action for the Next Generation: Dengue Prevention and Control".
A Blueprint for Action for the Next Generation: Dengue Prevention and Control
Dengue is a growing public health problem in the World. Approximately two fifths of the worlds population are at risk, and more than 100 countries have experienced dengue or dengue hemorraghic fever (DHF) outbreaks. The annual incidence of dengue is up to 50 million cases per year, of which 500,000 persons are hospitalized and 20,000 die. Ninety-five percent of all DHF cases are children under 15 years of age.
Second Meeting of a Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Southern Cone Region (Brasilia, Brazil, 11-13 May 1999)
The goal of this second meeting was to continue efforts to establish a functional network of laboratories within the greater Southern Cone Region--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay--capable to obtain accurate, high-quality laboratory results on new, emerging and re-emerging infections found in the Region.
1998: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country)
This data table shows the number of reported cases in 1998 of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in the Americas by country and according to week noted.
Meeting to Establish a Network of Laboratories for the Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Southern Cone Region: Buenos Aires, Argentina, 17-19 April 1998
The main goal of the meeting was to create a functional network of laboratories within the greater Southern Cone Region--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay--capable of obtaining accurate, high-quality laboratory results on new, emerging and re-emerging infections found in the Region. This page summarizes the objectives and conclusions of the meeting and provides access to the full-text conference report.
Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control (2nd ed.)
This second edition of the original WHO guide on dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is designed for widespread use among health practitioners, laboratory and vector-control personnel, and public-health officials. It is a concise reference with practical information on dengue and DHF with updated information on laboratory diagnosis and vector surveillance and control, integrating the work of international experts and the results of global meetings.
Hemispheric Plan to Expand and Intensify Efforts to Combat Aedes aegypti: Report
The task force analyzed the factors leading to success that were present in the initial eradication campaigns in the Region, as well as those that had led to the failure of these efforts, resulting in the reinfestation of countries that had achieved eradication.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. 2nd edition (Geneva : World Health Organization. 1997)
This World Health Organization publication, published in 1997, constitutes a valuable contribution and highly useful resource for scientists and health workers dealing with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). It is available through the WHO website, where it can be downloaded in full-text pdf files. It is also available in French, with purchasing instructions at this site.
1995: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country)
This data table shows the number of reported cases of Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas for 1995, by country and week indicated.
1996: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country)
This data table shows the number of reported cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in the Americas for 1996, by country and week noted.
Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in the Americas: Guidelines for Prevention and Control
Dengue and its potentially fatal forms--dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome--have intensified and reached alarming levels over the last decade. The purpose of this book, published in 1996, was to establish new guidelines for confronting this situation. The full text