Preface (text to right)
Antimicrobial Resistance Bibliography
This bibliography on Antimicrobial Resistance covers all information found in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. It includes documentation from the period of 1995-2000, in both English and Spanish. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) was the main thesaurus used in this bibliography. The main term, Antimicrobial resistance, was combined with other headings (MeSH and those selected by a group of specialists for this bibliography, as shown in the Table of Contents). Time limits were set from 1995 to 1999 as a final filter for the search. The bibliography itself was divided in four main categories, each one containing a series of interrelated subterms. The results of each search were reviewed and separated into the different subjects selected. If the article was written in a language other than English, the translated title will appear surrounded by brackets [ ], with English-language abstracts. The results of the search were then downloaded into ProCite Reference Manager software (Version 5) using using the import text file mode. As a result, a searchable database was created. The database was then searched by keyword to generate the Subject Section (sorted alphabetically), first by title and then by author); and the Author Section was generated and sorted by author and then by title. A special output format was built in ProCite, to create the printed citations for the Author and Subject Sections, respectively.
In the 1980s, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) began to take action to combat antimicrobial resistance with a survey on the activities carried out in the countries of the Americas to monitor the evolution of the problem. This led to improvements in the infrastructure of the laboratories working in this field, and training for their human resources. In 1995, given the growing problem of emerging and reemerging diseases in the Region, including resistance to antibiotics, and the new mandates from its Governing Bodies, PAHO intensified its efforts in this area. Prior to this time, the Organization had already supported the creation of a surveillance system to monitor antimicrobial susceptibility in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from invasive disease, pneumonia, and meningitis in children under 5 years of age. Originally, 70 hospitals from 30 cities and 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay) participated in the network, with financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency.The surveillance system has now been expanded to other countries and is currently monitoring resis- tance in isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.
In 1996, another surveillance network was established to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp., as well as Vibrio cholerae, important etiologic agents of diarrhea that sometimes require treatment with antibiotics. In the beginning, this network was comprised of the reference laboratories of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. In order to ensure reliable results, a system for internal quality control was established in each laboratory, and another system was set up for periodic external performance evaluation. Canada’s Laboratory Center for Disease Control served as the coordinating and referral laboratory.The laboratories of five Caribbean countries subsequently joined this network.
In late 1999, six new Latin American countries also joined the network: Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Paraguay. With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, five of these countries expanded their antimicrobial monitoring activities to include other bacterial agents present in both the community and at sentinel hospitals. A new coordinating laboratory was added to the system, Argentina’s National Administration for Laboratories and Health Institutes, which was responsible for evaluating the performance of monitoring activities in regard to surveillance of resistance among bacteria other than Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Vibrio cholerae in the five aforementioned countries.
The goal and results of these surveillance activities will serve as the basis for national actions to pre- vent or contain antimicrobial resistance. It will, therefore, be necessary to obtain information on current policies and practices in the countries; analyze and disseminate that information to expose the risk posed by the emergence of resistance and its economic impact; search for partners in the different sectors to promote successful preventive practices; and take steps to facilitate the rational use of antibiotics.
Some of the results of the activities described in preceding paragraphs have already been published in the Pan American Journal of Infectious Diseases (Volume 3, Supplement 1 May 1999), a publication of the Pan American Association of Infectious Diseases. They were also published in a collection of articles by various authors from the Region under the title Antimicrobial Resistance in the Americas: Magnitude and Containment of the Problem (PAHO/ad/dpc/cd/163/2000, in print) and an accompany- ing pamphlet that contains the results of the surveillance of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Vibrio cholerae (PAHO/ad/dpc/cd/163/2000–supplement).
The activities of the Organization in this field have not been isolated. PAHO has had considerable collaboration from other institutions interested in the problem of antimicrobial resistance, among them the Pan American Association for Infectious Diseases, the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, Canada’s National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens of Canada, Argentina’s National Institute for Infectious Diseases, and the American Society for Microbiology. It has also received financial support from the U.S. Agency for International Development.
Above all, we have benefited from the collaboration of a great number of professionals from the countries of the Region, affiliated with microbiology laboratories and clinical facilities alike (pediatricians, infectious disease specialists, and others), who have compiled and shared information with their colleagues from other countries and the Organization in order to disseminate it more widely. It was in such working environment that the need to present the published material on antimicrobial resistance in a more practical fashion was detected; hence, the origin of this bibliography.
With this volume on articles published between 1995 and 2000, with their respective abstracts, we hope to put a vast and valuable store of information within the reach of our collaborators and other professionals in the Region. Our purpose is to provide material that may assist them in their daily activities and serve as a guide and support to promote measures for the containment of antimicrobial resistance.