The Pan American Health Organization
Promoting Health in the Americas

 Safe Hospitals

Health Surveillance & Disease Prevention & Control — Communicable Diseases: 
Acute Respiratory Infections - Anthrax - Antimicrobial Resistance - Campylobacter - Chagas -
Cholera - Dengue - Diarrheal/Enteric Diseases - Disease Outbreak News -
Emerging/Reemerging Diseases - Filariasis - Hantavirus - InfluenzaAvian |  Pandemic |  Seasonal - International Health Regulations - Leishmaniasis - Leprosy - Malaria -
Neglected Diseases - Parasitic Diseases - Rabies - Research - Salmonella - Shigella - Smallpox -
Tuberculosis - West Nile Virus  - Yellow Fever  -
Health Analysis & Statistics - Chronic Diseases - Veterinary Public Health


Disease Prevention and Control / Communicable Diseases / Malaria

Public Health Pesticide Management Practices by WHO Member States: Report of a Survey, 2003–2004

(WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme / WHOPES, 2005)

WHOPES Pesticide Guide

Full Text
(55 pp, PDF, via WHOPES site)
- Acknowledgements
1. Introduction
2. Survey methodology
3. Analysis of response
3.1 Responding countries
3.2 Response to questions
4. Conclusion
5. References

- Other WHOPES Resources
- WHOPES Home
- PAHO Malaria Page

Survey Coverage: A total of 71 countries from the six WHO regions responded to the questionnaire for this survey. In the Region of the Americas, this included a total of 14 out of 43 Member States comprising 55% of the population at risk of major vector-borne diseases: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay. The Caribbean Epidemiology Centre / CAREC, located in Trinidad, assisted WHO with the collection and validation of the data.

WHOPES survey map

Survey Objectives: To study key features of public health pesticide management practices by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO); to assist national and international organizations in developing activities to address weaknesses in their management practices; and to serve as a baseline for monitoring progress in such activities.

Survey Background: The dwindling arsenal of safe and cost-effective pesticides, and the increasing challenges of their management under decentralized health systems, as well as the increasing use of pesticides by individuals and communities for personal protection and vector control, requires national policies, legislation and appropriate guidelines for their safe and effective use. WHO Guidelines on the management of public health pesticides promote judicious pesticide management practices which minimize potential health and environmental risks. These guidelines assist Member States with management of public health pesticides and with the implementation of the International code of conduct on distribution and use of pesticides. Public health pesticides include vector control pesticides and household insecticide products (e.g. mosquito coils and aerosol sprays) as well as professional pest management pesticide products used by professional operators. Although the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has carried out two studies on the state of implementation of the Code, in 1993 and 1996, there is no study specifically related to public health pesticides.*

Survey Methodology: The questionnaire was developed, field-tested and subsequently reviewed and finalized at the WHO Interregional Consultation on Public Health Pesticide Management, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 25-28 February 2003. It consists of two parts:

  • Part I relates mainly to regulatory issues and was completed by national pesticide registration authorities.
  • Part II relates to pesticide use and management in vector control and was completed either by the director of the national vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control.

The questionnaire was distributed to Member States at risk of major vector-borne diseases (e.g. malaria, dengue, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis) through WHO regional offices. The responses were entered into a database for analysis and future reference.


* Referring to two reports from FAO, Analysis of government responses to the first questionnaire on the international code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides, 1993; and Analysis of government responses to the second questionnaire on the state of implementation of the international code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides, 1996. Rome. (No online reference located)