2005, 392 pp.
ISBN 92 75 11594 X 4
Code: SP 594
Price: US$ 38.00/
US$ 26.00 in Latin America and the Caribbean
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Youth: Choices and Change

This just-released publication by PAHO on adolescent health and positive behavior change greatly enhances the knowledge base on this important public health issue. It presents the firstever systematic collection and reporting of the application of behavioral change theories and models specifically to adolescents. At the same time, it represents the first attempt to incorporate a developmental perspective in the conceptual analysis of these classical theoretical constructs when applied to the various stages of adolescence.

Cultural, ethnic, and gender differences are also given special consideration, as is the role of poverty and the ability of some adolescents to secure physical and emotional well-being despite circumstances of adversity.

This book additionally breaks new ground in explaining why some health promotion interventions aimed at positive adolescent behavior change produce the desired results, while others fail. The thoroughness of the analysis extends to the diversity of geographical settings cited: from Africa to the United States, Canada to Jamaica, Brazil to the Netherlands, El Salvador to Japan, and India to Mexico, to name only a few.

The experiences of the global research community presented here will undoubtedly find fertile ground among a variety of publics, including local health promoters, designers of community health promotion programs, health professionals, the academic and research community, ministries of public health and of youth affairs, those who study and those who create mass media trends, parents and teachers, school counselors, and all others who play a significant role in adolescents’ lives.


Preface / xi

The Authors/ xiii

Acknowledgments/ xv

Foreword
Paving the Way from Adolescence to a Healthy Adulthood/ xvii

Introduction
Healthy Choices and Changes/ xxi

SECTION ONE
DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR ADOLESCENTS/ 1


Introduction/ 2

Chapter One
Adolescent Lifestyles in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenges and Their Scope/ 5

Chapter Two
The Knowledge-Behavior Gap in Health Promotion/ 13

Chapter Three
The Importance of Behavior Theories to Successful Adolescent Health Programs/ 16

Chapter Four
Adolescents Living in a Complex Environment of Multiple Levels of Influence/ 20

Chapter Five
Listening to Adolescents' Needs and Wants: A Respectful Intervention/ 29

Chapter Six
The Crucial Link between Theories and Developmental Stages of Adolescence/ 34

Chapter Seven
The Youth: Choices and Change Model for Designing Effective Interventions for Adolescents/ 37

SECTION TWO
THEORIES AND MODELS FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE: THEIR APPLICATION TO ADOLESCENT/ 45


Theories and Models that Promote Change at the Individual Level/ 46

Chapter Eight
The Health Belief Model/ 49

Chapter Nine
The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change/ 55

Chapter Ten
The Theory of Reasoned Action/ 71

Chapter Eleven
The Theory of Planned Behavior/ 78

Chapter Twelve
The Goal-Setting Theory/ 87

Chapter Thirteen
The Self-Regulation Theory/ 94

Chapter Fourteen
The Sensation-Seeking Theory/ 102

Chapter Fifteen
At a Glance: The Individual Level Theories and Models for Behavior Change/ 111

Theories and Models that Promote Change at the Interpersonal Level/ 118

Chapter Sixteen
The Social Cognitive Theory/ 119

Chapter Seventeen
The Social Networks and Social Support Theories/ 137

Chapter Eighteen
The Authoritative Parenting Model/ 153

Chapter Nineteen
The Resilience Theory/ 168

Chapter Twenty
The Stress and Coping Theories/ 176

Chapter Twenty-one
At a Glance: The Interpersonal Level Theories and Models for Behavior Change/ 190

Theories and Models that Promote Change at the Community Level/ 195

Chapter Twenty-two
The Community Organization Models/ 196

Chapter Twenty-three
The Diffusion of Innovations Theory, Behavior Change Communication Models, and Social Marketing/ 209

Models that Promote Change at the Policy Level/ 224

Chapter Twenty-four
Models of Policy and Legislation Development/ 226

Chapter Twenty-five
At a Glance: The Community and Policy Level Theories and Models for Behavior Change/ 244

SECTION THREE
ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES AND GOALS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EARLY INTERVENTION/ 253


Introduction/ 254

Chapter Twenty-six
A New Approach to Classifying Adolescent Developmental Stages/ 257

Chapter Twenty-seven
Gender Differences and Adolescent Behaviors/ 269

Chapter Twenty-eight
Early Intervention during Adolescence: The Preadolescent Period/ 277

Chapter Twenty-nine
Early Intervention during Adolescence: The Early Adolescent Period/ 306

SECTION FOUR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS/ 333

Introduction/ 334

Chapter Thirty
The Next Decade: Perspectives for Improving Adolescent Health and Development/ 337

Afterword/ 347

References/ 349

Selected List of Web Resources on Adolescence and Health Behaviors/ 387