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Contents
regional volume

An overview of regional health

Chapter 1:
Health in the context
of development

Chapter 2:
Health conditions
and trends

Chapter 3:
Sustainable development and environmental health

Chapter 4:
Public policies
and health systems and services

Chapter 5:
Health and internacional cooperation

Chapter 6:
Prospects for
regional health

Contributors

Acronyms

 

Regional

CHAPTER CONTENT

ORGANIZATION, COVERAGE, AND PERFORMANCE OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEMS
Values,Principles,and Purposes ofHealth Systems
Background
Summary ofSector Reform in the Region in the 1980s and 1990s
Organization, Coverage,and Performance of Health Systems
Social Exclusion and Barriers to Access to the Health System
Changes in the Agenda for Social Welfare and Strengthening ofHealth Systems, 2001–2005

NATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURE AND FINANCING OF NATIONAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS AND SERVICES
National Health Expenditure in the Americas and Other Regions,2004: Public Spending Rises with Countries’Level of Economic Development
National Health Expenditure and the Public/Private Mix of National Health Care Systems in the Americas 2004–2005: Cross-Country Comparisons
Changes in the Composition of National Health Expenditure: Trends in Total Expenditure and the Growing Role of Private Insurance and Pre-paid Health Plans
Public Health Care Systems: Expenditure and Coverage of Government and Social Health Insurance Plans
Private Expenditure on Health by Households
Description of Household Expenditure on Health
Distributive Impact of Government Health Expenditure

HEALTH LEGISLATION
Legal Framework for Health System Stewardship and Regulatory Functions
Regulation ofFinancing, Insurance, and Private Sector Involvement in Health Care
Regulation of the Quality of Care
Channels for Participation by Civil Society
Enhancing Health Rights

HUMAN RESOURCES
The Importance ofHealth Human Resources and Their Development
Long-Range Policies and Plans to Better Adapt the Workforce to Health Requirements and Develop the Institutional Capacity to Put Them into Practice
Human Resource Planning Processes and Their Characteristics
Institutionalization of National Management ofHuman Resource Development
Regulation of Professional Practice by Health Human Resources

Placing the Right People in the Right Places to Achieve an Equitable Distribution of Health Personnel
Availability of Health Personnel
Health Personnel Composition
Public Budgets for Human Resources

Displacement ofHealth Workers
Distribution of Health Personnel
Migration of Health Personnel
International Agreements on Migration of Health Personnel

Relationships between Health Workers and Health Institutions
Changes in the Nature of Employment and Contracting Systems
Diversity in Labor Systems

Decentralization in Health Human Resources Management
Health Positions and Career Paths
Qualifications,Recruitment,and Careers of Health
Managers Management and Regulation of Health Personnel Conflicts
Training for Health Workers

Interaction between Professional Training Institutions and Health Services
Programs and Experiences with In-Service Education

FUNCTIONS OF HEALTH SYSTEMS:TRENDS AND CURRENT SITUATION
The Health Sector and the Health System
Conceptual Differences in the Operational Scope of Health Systems
General Trends in Health Reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean That Have Influenced the Traditional Functions ofHealth Systems
Trends in Stewardship
Trends in Financing and Insurance
Trends in Health Services Delivery

STEWARDSHIP FUNCTION
Conceptual and Methodological Development ofthe Stewardship Function, 2001–2005
The Stewardship Function and Strengthening Health Systems
Conceptual Framework ofthe Stewardship Function in Health
Effective Health Leadership
Effective Health Regulation and Supervision
Financing Function
Insurance Function
Health Services Delivery Function

Actions to Strengthen the Stewardship Function in Latin America and the Caribbean
Building Capacity to Regulate and Oversee the Pharmaceutical Sector: The Case of Brazil
Building the Leadership Capacity of the Health Authority: The Case of Chile
Building the Leadership Capacity of the Ministry of Health: The Case of Costa Rica

Challenges

THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES AS A FUNCTION OF THE HEALTH SYSTEM
Levels ofHealth Care Services
Access to Health Care Services
Quality of Health Care Services
Equity and Efficiency in the Delivery ofHealth Care Services
Development of High-Performing Health Care Delivery Systems
Challenges to Developing High-Performing Health Care Delivery Models
Emerging Trends in Health Care Delivery Models
The Goal: Integrated Health Care Services
Effects of High-Performing Health Care Delivery Models on Health Outcomes
Challenges in the Organization and Management ofHealth Care Services
Trends in the Management of Health Care Services
Capacity-Building for Optimal Management ofHealth Care Services

Health Care Services Monitoring and Performance Measurement
Emerging Trends in Health Care Services

MEDICINES AND HEALTH CARE TECHNOLOGIES
Medicines
Pharmaceutical Policies
The Pharmaceutical Market
Trade and Health
Harmonization
Supply of Medicines
Rational Use of Medicines

Vaccines
Vaccine Regulation
Imaging and Radiotherapy Services
Imaging Services
Radiotherapy Services
Planning and Management ofImaging and Radiotherapy Diagnostic Services
Protection against Radiation Risks

Blood Services
Clinical and Public Health Laboratories

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION ON HEALTH:ACCESS AND UTILIZATION
Trends in Scientific Production in Latin America and the Caribbean:2000–2005
Current Situation and Initiatives
The Virtual Health Library
SciELO
International Network of Information and Knowledge Sources for Sciences,Technology and Innovation Management
Regional Congress on Health Sciences Information
Network ofScience and Technology Health Indicators

Outlook and Needs

RENEWING PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN THE AMERICAS
The Context for Primary Health Care
Building Primary Health Care-Based Health Systems
The Way Forward

 
Pan American Health Organization website