Cancer (General Documents)

Visit the Cancer Page for an organized listing of the materials available on this topic.

   Technical Documents

Technical Documents

Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health
Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in all the countries of the Americas. This strategy was created to deal with this new epidemic: It Strategy is comprehensive, requiring a combination of interventions for the population and individuals. It is integrated, spanning prevention and control strategies focusing on the major chronic diseases and cross-cutting risk factors (especially diet, physical activity, tobacco, and alcohol). Finally, it is intersectoral, because most of the major determinants of the chronic-disease burden lie outside the health sector. This page offers an executive summary and access to the full text in PAHO publication format, as well as related initiatives.(4/Sep/2008)
In English       HTML(6.92k)   PDF(1669.81k)  
en español     HTML(7.68k)   PDF(1662.37k)  
en Français    PDF(754.25k)  
em Português PDF(625.47k)  

PanAmerican STEPS, the PAHO/WHO Stepwise Approach to Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance
The PAHO/WHO Stepwise Approach to Risk-Factor (RF) Surveillance (PanAmerican STEPS, or PanAm STEPS) is a simple, standardized method for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating RF data in Member Countries. This page describes the method and offers the main instrument, the question-by-question guide, and the official WHO manual.(26/Aug/2008)
In English       HTML(4.06k)  
en español     HTML(4.6k)  

CD48/6 - Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control
CD48/6 - Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control(14/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(103.14k)  
en español     PDF(109.6k)  
en Français    PDF(107.9k)  
em Português PDF(101.52k)  

First Congress on Early Detection of Childhood Cancer in Tamaulipas (Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico, 16-17 June2008)
The objectives of this congress included: Providing updates on childhood cancer to as training for the health professionals who participated; Providing updates on childhood cancer as part of continuing education for health professionals; Raising the level of awareness of the population of Tamaulipas with regard to childhood cancer; Establishing dialogue among the associations active in the area of childhood cancer in Mexico; Ensuring that the public recognizes that 70% of childhood cancer is curable if diagnosed early. This document includes the summary report. (17/Jun/2008)
In English       PDF(142.23k)  
en español     PDF(138.68k)  

PAHO Plan of Action for Cancer Prevention and Control: Cancer Stakeholders Meeting (Washington, DC, 11-12 June 2008)
The purpose of this meeting was to discuss an action plan for cancer prevention and control for LAC, with representatives from governments, cancer institutions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), professional associations, and PAHO/WHO. This page contains a summary of the meeting with agenda and list of participants plus 4 fact sheets.(12/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(11.77k)  
en español     HTML(13.18k)  

Trans Fat Free Americas: Declaration of Rio de Janeiro
Public health authorities, representatives of the food industry, and companies producing edible fats and oils--convened by the PAHO/WHO in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 8-9 June 2008--made this declaration against trans fatty acids in foods produced for human consumption.(9/Jun/2008)
In English       PDF(165.74k)  
en español     PDF(169.27k)  
em Português PDF(157.03k)  

Chronic Diseases: PAHO Activities
This page describes the mission, priority areas and activities related to chronic diseases: not only cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes but also risk-factor surveillance and integrated risk-factor and disease management (diet and physical activity, etc.).(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(4.2k)  
en español     HTML(4.67k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

Scaling Up Primary Health Care as a Major Strategy in the Prevention and Control of the Chronic Disease Epidemic (Global Health Council’s 35th Annual International Conference on Global Health, Washington, DC, 27 May 2008)
PAHO moderated a special session in this event devoted to strengthening primary care to deal with the chronic disease epidemic. This page contains a summary of the session plus the program, flyer, and four presentations.(27/May/2008)
In English       HTML(4.93k)  
en español     HTML(5.49k)  

Annual Meeting of the CARMEN Observatory on Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Policy: Mobilizing for Action (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 12-13 May 2008)
PAHO and the Public Health Agency of Canada have been collaborating for a number of years in the CARMEN Policy Observatory for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs). In addition to the latest meeting proceedings, this site provides access to the documentation for this year plus other resources, in all four PAHO official languages.(13/May/2008)
In English       PHAC  
en español     PHAC  
en Français    ASPC  
em Português PHAC  

Caribbean Private Sector Response to Chronic Diseases (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 8-9 May 2008)
The objective of this meeting was to mobilize the Caribbean private sector to take a more active role in the reduction of chronic noncommunicable diseases by implementing measures to reduce the risk of these diseases affecting its own employees as well as the wider community, as well as supporting a Caribbean Wellness Day. This page offers a downloadable CD-ROM with all documentation and presentations. (9/May/2008)
In English       HTML(9.01k)  
en español     HTML(11.21k)  

Promoting Physical Activity in the Caribbean (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 6-7 May 2008)
This training course was held to educate participants in the value of physical activity in promoting health, with real-life examples of built environments, public spaces, and urban planning that promote walking, biking, and use of public transportation. The online presentations contain the latest data on obesity and hundreds of photos that speak for themselves and prove how these concepts have been applied effectively, with arguments as to their validity that refute common myths as to why it can't be done. This page offers all training materials.(7/May/2008)
In English       HTML(7.73k)  
en español     HTML(9.9k)  

Workshop: Surveillance of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs) in the Southern Cone (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 23–25 April 2008)
The MERCOSUR countries are working with PAHO and Simon Fraser University in Vancouver to strengthen their CNCD surveillance systems. They now have an excellent opportunity to push for this at the MERCOSUR Ministers of Health Meeting in November. The purpose of this workshop was to coordinate efforts towards this end.(28/Apr/2008)
In English       HTML(6.01k)   PDF(220.82k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(212.59k)  

Dominica's National Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases Summit (14 December 2007)
Three months after the CARICOM Heads of Government NCD Summit in Port-of-Spain on 15 September 2007, Dominica held a National CNCD Summit. The meeting was attended by the President, Prime Minister, cabinet, and civil society, including the private sector, NGOs, and the media. This page contains a summary and the report.(14/Dec/2007)
In English       HTML(3.39k)  
en español     HTML(3.72k)  

CARMEN Network Biennial Meeting: Sharing, Learning, Imagining, Planning and Partnering to Implement the Chronic Disease Regional Strategy within the CARMEN Network (Nassau, Bahamas, 4–8 November 2007)
This page contains the materials and eventual output from the Biennial Meeting for the CARMEN Network for the integrated prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in the Americas. The meeting will include a variety of presentation from four main areas: policy and advocacy, surveillance and research, health promotion and disease prevention, and integrated disease and risk-factor management. This page contains all meeting materials, including the final report.(15/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(10.18k)  
en español     HTML(11.37k)  

Capacity-Building in Prevention and Control of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Focal Points Meeting (Panama City, Panama, 10–12 October 2007)
This page provides complete orientation on what PAHO is currently doing in the area of chronic noncommunicable disease prevention and control: While the Noncommunicable Disease Unit plays a main role role in implementing the Regional Strategy on diet, physical activity, and health, it is a shared responsibility among all staff working in chronic disease prevention and control across several PAHO Units and Areas, Country Offices, and Centers. This meeting provided an opportunity for professional briefing, updating, and agreement for all involved personnel throughout the Organization. This page provides all meeting materials and presentations and gives a thorough overview of the current situation, strategic direction, and planned activities. (12/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(15.86k)  
en español     HTML(17.43k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

National Consultation: Strategies for a National Action Plan on Integrated Management and Epidemiological Surveillance of Chronic Diseases (Managua, Nicaragua, 2 July 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to establish a National Action Plan as well as a National Operational Plan for the execution of the lines of action of the Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to Chronic Diseases in Nicaragua. This page offers a summary, the agenda, and the seven PowerPoint presentations made at the meeting. (2/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(5.77k)  
en español     HTML(5.66k)  

WHA60.25: Integrating Gender Analysis and Actions into the Work of WHO: Draft Strategy
This resolution from the 60th World Health Assembly in 2007 sets forth the WHO mandate to analyze the data and act in ensuring and integrating gender equality into all health-related areas and all levels of health-care delivery and services for women and girls of all ages.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.25  
en español     WHA60.25  
en Français    WHA60.25  

Biannual Meeting of the CARMEN Network (Santiago, Chile, 19-21 October 2005)
In light of the projected increase of deaths due to chronic disease (a 17% increase), the objectives of the meeting were to present the PAHO Noncommunicable Disease Unit and its areas of technical cooperation; to review developments in CNCD prevention and control in CARMEN Member Countries; and to discuss the future of the CARMEN network. This strategic meeting was attended by 60 representatives from over 20 countries.(4/May/2007)
In English       HTML(5.88k)   PDF(421.57k)  
en español     HTML(6.68k)   PDF(423.58k)  

10 Key Findings and Recommendations for Effective Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Programs
This two-page ACCP Fact Sheet summarizes outline 10 key findings and recommendations for global policy and practice related to cervical cancer screening and treatment in low-resource settings. It is based on studies carried out in four countries all over the world, with PAHO's study the TATI project in Peru. PAHO is a member of the ACCP.(30/Apr/2007)
In English       PDF(84.74k)  

CARMEN Management Committee Workshop Report (Toronto, 15-16 March 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to review progress to date and to discuss how a strengthened CARMEN initiatiive can support implementation of the PAHO Regional Strategy. Specific objectives included: (1) To report on progress to date; (2) To review the revised draft Terms of Reference; (3) To discuss future directions by reviewing the draft country profile tool, sharing information about supplementary tools, identifying possibilities for further development and piloting of tools and projects, as well as potential actions in support of the Regional Strategy and other actions to support an integrated approach to chronic disease; and (4) To begin planning for the next CARMEN Biennial Meeting (November 2007). (16/Mar/2007)
In English       PDF(384.98k)  

Subregional Meeting of Representatives and Center Directors from Central America, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and the US-Mexican Border Field Office (Belize City, 12–16 February 2007)
This consultation follows up on the one held in Panama in November 2007 on the implementation of the Estrategia regional y Plan de acción para un enfoque integrado sobre la prevención y el control de las enfermedades crónicas, incluyendo el régimen alimentario, la actividad física y la salud in Central America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. This page contains a summary of the consultation, a PowerPoint presentation on the Regional Strategy as it relates to Central America, and the results of the Panama meeting.(16/Feb/2007)
In English       HTML(4.41k)  
en español     HTML(4.84k)  

Stop the Global Epidemic of Chronic Disease: A Practical Guide to Successful Advocacy
Effective advocacy is needed to convince decision-makers that chronic diseases and health promotion merit increased investment at the national and local level, and that decisive action carries substantial, cost-effective benefits. 36 million lives can be saved over the next 10 years, which in turn will lead to substantial economic benefits to countries. This guide will help teach interested persons how to advocate more effectively.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       HTML(5.24k)   PDF(10047.49k)  
en español     HTML(6.19k)  
en Français    OMS  

Cervical Cancer Prevention in Peru: Lessons Learned from the TATI Demonstration Project
In Peru, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. In low-resource settings, the usefulness has been demonstrated of a 'see, triage, and treat' approach consisting of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for screening, Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid Magnified (VIAM) as a triage test, and treatment by cryotherapy. In the region of San Martín, Peru, such a low-resource setting, a cervical cancer demonstration project was developed to evaluate the population effectiveness of this 'see, triage, and treat' approach. This page provides a summary and access to the full-text report.(15/Dec/2006)
In English       HTML(12.19k)   PDF(2013.2k)  
en español     HTML(13.23k)   PDF(1876.56k)  

Central America-Mexico Regional Consultation: Regional Strategy and Plan of Action on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health (Panama City, 27 November 2006)
The objective of this meeting was for the Central American countries and Mexico to search for and begin to identify the national and subregional mechanisms for implementation of the Regional Strategy and Plan of Action on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health, approved by the PAHO/WHO 47th Directing Council in September 2006. (27/Nov/2006)
In English       HTML(5.16k)  
en español     HTML(5.46k)  

Surveillance of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors (WHO Fact Sheet No. 273)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on the surveillance of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases. Quality health information is essential for planning and implementing health policy in all countries. Risk factor data are especially important as predictors of future disease or injury. The World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life, identifies five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. Risk factors are defined as any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual, which increase the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. Measuring risk factors of noncommunicable disease is an attempt to predict the future distribution of NCDs in a population. This type of information is vital to promoting disease prevention and control programs.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Obesity and Overweight (WHO Fact Sheet No. 311)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on obesity and overweight. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. WHO defines "overweight" as a BMI equal to or more than 25, and "obesity" as a BMI equal to or more than 30. These cut-off points provide a benchmark for individual assessment, but there is evidence that risk of chronic disease in populations increases progressively from a BMI of 21.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  
en Français    OMS  

Ist Workshop on Implementation of Pan American STEPS Methodology for Risk-Factor Surveillance (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 10-15 May 2006)
The goal of this training activity was aimed at the countries implementing the STEPwise Approach to Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance (Pan American STEPS): explain the rationale and ensuring uniform application. The expected result is that the countries will plan their first population survey on the surveillance of chronic diseases and their risk factors. This page includes a summary and access to all training materials.(12/May/2006)
In English       HTML(2.53k)  
en español     HTML(2.63k)  

Versión panamericana de STEPS para la vigilancia de los factores de riesgo de las enfermedades crónicas
Este documento de la versión en español del instrumento estándar de la OMS para la vigilancia de factores de riesgo de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT), el cual los países/sitios utilizarán para desarrollar su propio instrumento. Contiene las secciones principales (las casillas con fondo blanco, las secciones ampliadas (las casillas con fondo sombreado), y las respuestas posibles para Step 1, Step 2 y Step 3. Los módulos principales para cada sección contienen preguntas necesarias para calcular variables fundamentales. Las preguntas de las secciones ampliadas permiten obtener más detalles.(29/Mar/2006)
en español     PDF(207.44k)  

National Cancer Control Programs: Policies and Managerial Guidelines (2nd ed.)
This monograph provides guidance for policy-makers and others on the establishment of national cancer control programmes. It outlines the scientific basis of feasible approaches to the control of cancer, and considers possibilities for prevention, early detection, cure and care. It discusses the appropriateness of particular technologies, and describes how to manage national programmes tailored to different resource settings. (PAHO has translated this book into Spanish, available on its Spanish-language site.)(10/Dec/2004)
In English       WHO  
en español     HTML(8.2k)  

Regional Core Health Data System - Indicators Glossary
Definition, technical note, type, measure units, categories, and subcategories for each indicator in the Regional Core Health Data System(26/Oct/2004)
In English       HTML(0.57k)  
en español     HTML(0.6k)  

Importancia para otras enfermedades
Este capítulo presenta 14 recomendaciones alimentarias basadas en 10 principios. En esta sección se identifica la adecuación con las recomendaciones diseñadas para prevenir otras enfermedades y, cuando aparece alguna contradicción, propone medios de reconciliación. Páginas 629-634 (Alimentos, nutrición y la prevención del cáncer: una perspectiva mundial. © OPS, 2003) (Usted puede comprar este capítulo)(21/Oct/2003)
en español     Texto completo  

Implicaciones políticas
Basado en los trabajos de los últimos 15 años de expertos que revisaron las publicaciones científicas sobre alimentación y cáncer y que se refiere a la prevención primaria del cáncer con una perspectiva mundial. Este último capítulo del informe da una idea general de las necesidades políticas derivadas de sus conclusiones y recomendaciones. Páginas 635-636 (Alimentos, nutrición y la prevención del cáncer: una perspectiva mundial. © OPS, 2003) (Usted puede comprar este capítulo)(21/Oct/2003)
en español     Texto completo  

La prevención y sus ventajas
Este último capítulo del informe da una idea general de las necesidades políticas derivadas de sus conclusiones y recomendaciones. Esta sección calcula el potencial de las recomendaciones alimentarias contenidas en el informe para reducir la incidencia del cáncer y la mortalidad por su causa en todo el mundo, en una proporción de 30 a 40%. Páginas 637-650 (Alimentos, nutrición y la prevención del cáncer: una perspectiva mundial. © OPS, 2003) (Usted puede comprar este capítulo)(21/Oct/2003)
en español     Texto completo  

Este capítulo revisa el cáncer de endometrio, con cuadros sobre factores alimentarios y no alimentarios (como baja paridad, exposición prolongada a estrógenos) establecidos en este tipo de cáncer, tasas de incidencia por edad a nivel mundial. Páginas 349-357 (Alimentos, nutrición y la prevención del cáncer: una perspectiva mundial. © OPS, 2003) (Usted puede comprar este capítulo)(15/Oct/2003)
en español     Texto completo  

This chapter of the book discusses the case of cancers, which rank among the leading causes of death in every nation, though there are great differences across cultural and environments. Risk and protective factors for digestive system cancers, cancers of the colon and rectum, cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus , larynx, pharynx, cancer of the liver, trachea, bronchus and lung, bladder, skin cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Pages 201-225. (Building Better Health: A Handbook of Behavioral Change, © PAHO, 2003) (You can purchase this chapter)(13/Oct/2003)
In English       Full Text  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Posibles marcadores de la susceptibilidad al cáncer colorrectal (instantáneas)
Recientemente un grupo de investigadores de la Universidad Johns Hopkins publicó los resultados de una investigación preliminar en 172 sujetos según la cual pronto podría haber un análisis de sangre para identificar a las personas que presentan un riesgo elevado de sufrir cáncer colorrectal. (Rev Panam Salud Pública 2003 13(4):255)(25/Jun/2003)
en español     Más  

The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life
Worldwide, healthy life expectancy can be increased by 5 to 10 years if governments and individuals work together to reduce major health risks in each Region. This report examines more than risks to health and identifies interventions that would reduce these risks, thereby increasing healthy life years. The risks to health include underweight, unsafe sex, high blood pressure, tobacco, alcohol, unsafe water and sanitation, cholesterol, indoor smoke from solid fuels, iron deficiency and overweight. (30/Oct/2002)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  

Calculation for Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) by Gender for Selected Countries in Latin America & the Caribbean (1996-1999, per 100,000 pop., by gender)
These tables provide data for 1996-1999 (though rates are not available for all years in all cases) for the following NCDs: stomach cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, stroke, transport accidents, falling, firearms, drowning, respiratory trauma, electrocution, fire/smoke/burns, poisoning, other accidents, suicides, homicides, unknown intention, external causes and diabetes. The tables will be updated regularly and we invite our users to consult the site periodically for such updates. All calculations were done in accordance with International Classification of Disease (ICD), Version 10. Last update: 12 April 2004.(24/Jun/2002)
In English       HTML(117.47k)  

New recommendations from the United States Government on breast cancer screening
In recent years there has been much controversy and debate concerning the effectiveness of various approaches to screening for breast cancer. (Rev Panam Salud Pública 2002 11(3):205-207))(31/Mar/2002)
In English       More  

European Health21, Target 11: Healthier Living
From the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in its 48th Meeting (Copenhagen, 9/1998), this document establishes goal for the year 2015, by which time people from all social levels should have adopted a healthier lifestyle through an integrated approach. These dietary norms information that health professionals can impart to their clients to help them prevent illness and promote good health by following a healthy diet based primarily on vegetables. This HTML page contains the abstract and provides access to the full-text WHO document in downloadable PDF (416 KB).(22/Jun/2000)
In English       HTML(1.72k)  
en español     HTML(1.98k)  

Hábitos alimentarios en el mundo actual
Los hábitos alimentarios en el mundo actual y las diferencias globales en el consumo de los principales grupos (cereales, hortalizas, carnes, productos lácteos, etc), tales como las registró la FAO, se presentan para cada continente o región específica como porcentajes de la energía total. La figura es una de las muchas informaciones estadísticas y gráficas incluidas en la publicación de la OPS, del World Cancer Research Fund y del American Institute for Cancer Research: "Alimentos, nutrición y la prevención del cáncer: Una perspectiva mundial".(11/Jan/2000)
en español     PDF(160.91k)   Librería en línea  

CARMEN: Country Profiles
The CARMEN Initiative addresses all risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases and non-intentional injuries. However, the specific risk factors that each CARMEN program addresses are based upon a situational analysis and the priorities of each country.(24/Aug/1999)
In English       HTML(27.07k)  

CARMEN: Protocol and Guidelines. Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI) Programme.
This document from the World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) contains information on the protocol and guidelines for the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI) Programme.(24/Aug/1997)
In English       WORDL(404.48k)   PDF(249.48k)  

Sustancias dañinas presentes en el tabaco
En esta sesión del libro 'Tabaquismo: una amenaza constante para la salud' el autor revisa que el tabaco contiene alrededor de 4000 sustancias de las cuales 401 son tóxicas mencionando que 43 se sabe que provocan cáncer. Páginas 15-16 (Tabaquismo: una amenaza constante para la salud, © OPS, 1997) (Disponible con la compra del libro) (7/Feb/1997)
en español     Librería en Línea  

Epidemiological Perspectives on Life-Style Modification and Health Promotion in Cancer Research.
Evaluates life-style factors and health promotion by means of the epidemiologic method. Includes societal position, behavioral risk factors, screening behaviors and psychosocial factors. Pages 232-238 (Health Promotion: An Anthology. © PAHO, 1996) (You can purchase this article)(28/Oct/1996)
In English       Full Text  
en español     Texto completo