Diabetes

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   Technical Documents


Technical Documents

Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health
Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in all the countries of the Americas. This strategy was created to deal with this new epidemic: It Strategy is comprehensive, requiring a combination of interventions for the population and individuals. It is integrated, spanning prevention and control strategies focusing on the major chronic diseases and cross-cutting risk factors (especially diet, physical activity, tobacco, and alcohol). Finally, it is intersectoral, because most of the major determinants of the chronic-disease burden lie outside the health sector. This page offers an executive summary and access to the full text in PAHO publication format, as well as related initiatives.(4/Sep/2008)
In English       HTML(6.92k)   PDF(1669.81k)  
en español     HTML(7.68k)   PDF(1662.37k)  
en Français    PDF(754.25k)  
em Português PDF(625.47k)  

PanAmerican STEPS, the PAHO/WHO Stepwise Approach to Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance
The PAHO/WHO Stepwise Approach to Risk-Factor (RF) Surveillance (PanAmerican STEPS, or PanAm STEPS) is a simple, standardized method for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating RF data in Member Countries. This page describes the method and offers the main instrument, the question-by-question guide, and the official WHO manual.(26/Aug/2008)
In English       HTML(4.06k)  
en español     HTML(4.6k)  

CD48/5 - Population-based and Individual Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Obesity
CD48/5 - Population-based and Individual Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Obesity(21/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(153.91k)  
en español     PDF(173.39k)  
en Français    PDF(161.64k)  
em Português PDF(157.84k)  

Introduction to Social Marketing: Its Application for Promoting Healthy Lifestyles (Mexico City, Mexico, 28 July – 1 August 2008)
This 40-hour course was sponsored by PAHO's CARMEN School, the summer courses at the National Institute of Health of Mexico, and the University of South Florida. As a result, the technique of Social Marketing selected at the course will be used will be used for dissemination and application for social communication in the areas of obesity and overweight among children, physical activity, diabetes, cervical cancer, and limiting the sale of junk food and products from vending machines.(1/Aug/2008)
In English       HTML(6.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.73k)  

Trans Fat Free Americas: Declaration of Rio de Janeiro
Public health authorities, representatives of the food industry, and companies producing edible fats and oils--convened by the PAHO/WHO in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 8-9 June 2008--made this declaration against trans fatty acids in foods produced for human consumption.(9/Jun/2008)
In English       PDF(165.74k)  
en español     PDF(169.27k)  
em Português PDF(157.03k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

Chronic Diseases: PAHO Activities
This page describes the mission, priority areas and activities related to chronic diseases: not only cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes but also risk-factor surveillance and integrated risk-factor and disease management (diet and physical activity, etc.).(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(4.2k)  
en español     HTML(4.67k)  

CE142/9 - Population and Individual Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Obesity
(30/May/2008)
In English       PDF(114.07k)  
en español     PDF(129.71k)  

Scaling Up Primary Health Care as a Major Strategy in the Prevention and Control of the Chronic Disease Epidemic (Global Health Council’s 35th Annual International Conference on Global Health, Washington, DC, 27 May 2008)
PAHO moderated a special session in this event devoted to strengthening primary care to deal with the chronic disease epidemic. This page contains a summary of the session plus the program, flyer, and four presentations.(27/May/2008)
In English       HTML(4.93k)  
en español     HTML(5.49k)  

Annual Meeting of the CARMEN Observatory on Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Policy: Mobilizing for Action (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 12-13 May 2008)
PAHO and the Public Health Agency of Canada have been collaborating for a number of years in the CARMEN Policy Observatory for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs). In addition to the latest meeting proceedings, this site provides access to the documentation for this year plus other resources, in all four PAHO official languages.(13/May/2008)
In English       PHAC  
en español     PHAC  
en Français    ASPC  
em Português PHAC  

Caribbean Private Sector Response to Chronic Diseases (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 8-9 May 2008)
The objective of this meeting was to mobilize the Caribbean private sector to take a more active role in the reduction of chronic noncommunicable diseases by implementing measures to reduce the risk of these diseases affecting its own employees as well as the wider community, as well as supporting a Caribbean Wellness Day. This page offers a downloadable CD-ROM with all documentation and presentations. (9/May/2008)
In English       HTML(9.01k)  
en español     HTML(11.21k)  

Promoting Physical Activity in the Caribbean (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 6-7 May 2008)
This training course was held to educate participants in the value of physical activity in promoting health, with real-life examples of built environments, public spaces, and urban planning that promote walking, biking, and use of public transportation. The online presentations contain the latest data on obesity and hundreds of photos that speak for themselves and prove how these concepts have been applied effectively, with arguments as to their validity that refute common myths as to why it can't be done. This page offers all training materials.(7/May/2008)
In English       HTML(7.73k)  
en español     HTML(9.9k)  

Workshop: Surveillance of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs) in the Southern Cone (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 23–25 April 2008)
The MERCOSUR countries are working with PAHO and Simon Fraser University in Vancouver to strengthen their CNCD surveillance systems. They now have an excellent opportunity to push for this at the MERCOSUR Ministers of Health Meeting in November. The purpose of this workshop was to coordinate efforts towards this end.(28/Apr/2008)
In English       HTML(6.01k)   PDF(220.82k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(212.59k)  

Guías ALAD de diagnóstico, control y tratamiento de la Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2
Las Guías ALAD son de seguro una herramienta fundamental para el control de la diabetes tipo 2 en America Latina. Estas guías basadas en evidencias han sido producidas por un grupo de profesionales que constituyen la vanguardia científica de nuestra región en el campo de la endocrinología y la diabetes. Esperamos que estas guías se utilicen por el personal sanitario de los tres niveles de atención para brindar un servicio de calidad y obtener los mejores resultados clínicos.(14/Apr/2008)
en español     HTML(7.99k)   PDF(816.4k)  

Managing Diabetes in Primary Care in the Caribbean
These guidelines, published by the Caribbean Health Research Council (CHRC) with PAHO collaboration, are aimed at producing a unified, evidence-based approach to the management of diabetes in the Caribbean. Objectives are: Prevent or delay the onset of diabetes and co-morbid conditions of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia; Promote earlier diagnosis of diabetes; Improve the quality of care of persons with diabetes; Prevent and treat acute and long-term complications of diabetes; Promote education and empowerment of the patient, family and community, and healthcare worker. (1/Apr/2008)
In English       HTML(8.98k)   CHRC  

Caribbean Expert Consultation on Scaling Up Population-Based Screening and Management of CVD and Diabetes (Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4-5 March 2008)
This page offers access to the five presentations from this conference: the Caribbean situation, reducing CVD mortality, the single risk-factor approach, the Caribbean Diabetes project, and its context and objectives.(5/Mar/2008)
In English       HTML(3.08k)  

Dominica's National Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases Summit (14 December 2007)
Three months after the CARICOM Heads of Government NCD Summit in Port-of-Spain on 15 September 2007, Dominica held a National CNCD Summit. The meeting was attended by the President, Prime Minister, cabinet, and civil society, including the private sector, NGOs, and the media. This page contains a summary and the report.(14/Dec/2007)
In English       HTML(3.39k)  
en español     HTML(3.72k)  

CARMEN Network Biennial Meeting: Sharing, Learning, Imagining, Planning and Partnering to Implement the Chronic Disease Regional Strategy within the CARMEN Network (Nassau, Bahamas, 4–8 November 2007)
This page contains the materials and eventual output from the Biennial Meeting for the CARMEN Network for the integrated prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in the Americas. The meeting will include a variety of presentation from four main areas: policy and advocacy, surveillance and research, health promotion and disease prevention, and integrated disease and risk-factor management. This page contains all meeting materials, including the final report.(15/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(10.18k)  
en español     HTML(11.37k)  

Capacity-Building in Prevention and Control of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Focal Points Meeting (Panama City, Panama, 10–12 October 2007)
This page provides complete orientation on what PAHO is currently doing in the area of chronic noncommunicable disease prevention and control: While the Noncommunicable Disease Unit plays a main role role in implementing the Regional Strategy on diet, physical activity, and health, it is a shared responsibility among all staff working in chronic disease prevention and control across several PAHO Units and Areas, Country Offices, and Centers. This meeting provided an opportunity for professional briefing, updating, and agreement for all involved personnel throughout the Organization. This page provides all meeting materials and presentations and gives a thorough overview of the current situation, strategic direction, and planned activities. (12/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(15.86k)  
en español     HTML(17.43k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Implementation Manual for Collaborative Projects to Improve the Quality of Care for People with Chronic Diseases
The purpose of this manual is to provide interested parties with information on references for collaborative projects. The manual is also aimed at helping with the successful initial preparation for the year of work done on this project that promotes the improvement of the quality of life of people with chronic diseases. It is a product of the Veracruz Initiative for Diabetes Awareness (VIDA Project). This page provides an executive summary in English and access to the full text in Spanish.(17/Sep/2007)
In English       HTML(10.96k)  
en español     HTML(11.92k)   PDF(824.62k)  

Survey of Diabetes, Hypertension and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Villa Nueva, Guatemala 2007
The objectives of this survey were to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in people 20 years of age and older in a sample taken from the Municipality of Villa Nueva, Department of Guatemala; determine the prevalence of factors considered of risk for diabetes and hypertension; and determine the relationship between the prevalence of these diseases and certain demographic, environmental, social, cultural, and economic factors. This page contains a summary with findings as well as access to the full text. (7/Sep/2007)
In English       HTML(19.52k)   PDF(1204.63k)  
en español     HTML(20.1k)   PDF(1351.83k)  

Trinidad and Tobago: Current Activities in CNCD Risk Factor Reduction, Diabetic Foot Care, and Wellness (CARMEN Biennial Conference, Nassau, Bahamas, 4-8 November 2007)
The CARMEN Network on Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Risk-Factor Management will hold its meeting in November in Trinidad. This page offers information on three presentations to be made on activities in that country: National Plan for Risk Factor Reduction in the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Diabetic Foot Care Management Programme, and Wellness Programme for Risk Factor Reduction in the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.(15/Aug/2007)
In English       HTML(13.81k)  
en español     HTML(15.72k)  

First Learning Session of the CAMDI Collaborative Project (Managua, Nicaragua, 3–4 July 2007)
As part of the second stage of development of the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) and its Collaborative Project, an intervention was started in four centers of Managua, Nicaragua, to improve care for people with diabetes, beginning with application of the Breakthrough Series Methodology (BTS). This page contains a summary, a link to the methodology, the agenda, and the meeting presentations.(4/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(4.89k)  
en español     HTML(5.03k)  

The Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI): Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua
The Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI)--now producing results--is a response to a subregional workshop that took place in San Salvador in March 2000, sponsored by The Diabetes Declaration of the Americas (DOTA) and PAHO. This project is a seed initiative that should lead to the development of a national diabetes program in participating countries. This page serves as a fact sheet telling about CAMDI and providing access to its information products.(3/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(7.29k)  
en español     HTML(8.02k)  

National Consultation: Strategies for a National Action Plan on Integrated Management and Epidemiological Surveillance of Chronic Diseases (Managua, Nicaragua, 2 July 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to establish a National Action Plan as well as a National Operational Plan for the execution of the lines of action of the Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to Chronic Diseases in Nicaragua. This page offers a summary, the agenda, and the seven PowerPoint presentations made at the meeting. (2/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(5.77k)  
en español     HTML(5.66k)  

US-Mexico Border Diabetes Forum (South Padre Island, Texas, 20 May 2007)
The objective of this event was to create a forum where US-Mexico Border health professionals and non-traditional partners can dialog, debate, share, determine, and better implement health policies and programs based on available scientific evidence in the area of diabetes. The forum serves as a pivotal mechanism for the incorporation of new ideas, debates and dialogued on key public health issues(20/May/2007)
In English       HTML(11.9k)  
en español     HTML(13.16k)  

Biannual Meeting of the CARMEN Network (Santiago, Chile, 19-21 October 2005)
In light of the projected increase of deaths due to chronic disease (a 17% increase), the objectives of the meeting were to present the PAHO Noncommunicable Disease Unit and its areas of technical cooperation; to review developments in CNCD prevention and control in CARMEN Member Countries; and to discuss the future of the CARMEN network. This strategic meeting was attended by 60 representatives from over 20 countries.(4/May/2007)
In English       HTML(5.88k)   PDF(421.57k)  
en español     HTML(6.68k)   PDF(423.58k)  

CARMEN Management Committee Workshop Report (Toronto, 15-16 March 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to review progress to date and to discuss how a strengthened CARMEN initiatiive can support implementation of the PAHO Regional Strategy. Specific objectives included: (1) To report on progress to date; (2) To review the revised draft Terms of Reference; (3) To discuss future directions by reviewing the draft country profile tool, sharing information about supplementary tools, identifying possibilities for further development and piloting of tools and projects, as well as potential actions in support of the Regional Strategy and other actions to support an integrated approach to chronic disease; and (4) To begin planning for the next CARMEN Biennial Meeting (November 2007). (16/Mar/2007)
In English       PDF(384.98k)  

Subregional Meeting of Representatives and Center Directors from Central America, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and the US-Mexican Border Field Office (Belize City, 12–16 February 2007)
This consultation follows up on the one held in Panama in November 2007 on the implementation of the Estrategia regional y Plan de acción para un enfoque integrado sobre la prevención y el control de las enfermedades crónicas, incluyendo el régimen alimentario, la actividad física y la salud in Central America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. This page contains a summary of the consultation, a PowerPoint presentation on the Regional Strategy as it relates to Central America, and the results of the Panama meeting.(16/Feb/2007)
In English       HTML(4.41k)  
en español     HTML(4.84k)  

Stop the Global Epidemic of Chronic Disease: A Practical Guide to Successful Advocacy
Effective advocacy is needed to convince decision-makers that chronic diseases and health promotion merit increased investment at the national and local level, and that decisive action carries substantial, cost-effective benefits. 36 million lives can be saved over the next 10 years, which in turn will lead to substantial economic benefits to countries. This guide will help teach interested persons how to advocate more effectively.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       HTML(5.24k)   PDF(10047.49k)  
en español     HTML(6.19k)  
en Français    OMS  

Central America-Mexico Regional Consultation: Regional Strategy and Plan of Action on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health (Panama City, 27 November 2006)
The objective of this meeting was for the Central American countries and Mexico to search for and begin to identify the national and subregional mechanisms for implementation of the Regional Strategy and Plan of Action on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health, approved by the PAHO/WHO 47th Directing Council in September 2006. (27/Nov/2006)
In English       HTML(5.16k)  
en español     HTML(5.46k)  

All About Diabetes
This site of the American Diabetes Association offers basic information for people with diabetes.(26/Oct/2006)
In English       ADA  
en español     ADA  

Surveillance of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors (WHO Fact Sheet No. 273)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on the surveillance of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases. Quality health information is essential for planning and implementing health policy in all countries. Risk factor data are especially important as predictors of future disease or injury. The World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life, identifies five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. Risk factors are defined as any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual, which increase the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. Measuring risk factors of noncommunicable disease is an attempt to predict the future distribution of NCDs in a population. This type of information is vital to promoting disease prevention and control programs.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Obesity and Overweight (WHO Fact Sheet No. 311)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on obesity and overweight. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. WHO defines "overweight" as a BMI equal to or more than 25, and "obesity" as a BMI equal to or more than 30. These cut-off points provide a benchmark for individual assessment, but there is evidence that risk of chronic disease in populations increases progressively from a BMI of 21.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  
en Français    OMS  

Diabetes (WHO Fact Sheet No. 312)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information--facts, consequences, economic impact and how to reduce it, prevention and control activities--on diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or alternatively, when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. The page is divided into sections offering answers to the most frequent questions.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Consensus Statement on Prevention of Disability (Consensus Development Conference on the Prevention of Disability [POD], Cebu City, Philippines, 13–16 September 2006)
The objectives of the conference were to discuss POD activities in the context of leprosy and other chronic diseases, such as Buruli ulcer, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes; to agree on basic definitions; to agree on a basic, evidence-based approach to POD that is part of routine case management; to agree on the elements of home-based self-care; to agree on methods of monitoring and reporting POD activities; and to agree on priorities for further clinical and operational research in POD. This page contains the executive summary and access to the 9-page statement in PDF, with specific bibliographical references.(16/Sep/2006)
In English       HTML(7.19k)   WORDL(161.79k)   PDF(178.01k)  

Ist Workshop on Implementation of Pan American STEPS Methodology for Risk-Factor Surveillance (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 10-15 May 2006)
The goal of this training activity was aimed at the countries implementing the STEPwise Approach to Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance (Pan American STEPS): explain the rationale and ensuring uniform application. The expected result is that the countries will plan their first population survey on the surveillance of chronic diseases and their risk factors. This page includes a summary and access to all training materials.(12/May/2006)
In English       HTML(2.53k)  
en español     HTML(2.63k)  

Versión panamericana de STEPS para la vigilancia de los factores de riesgo de las enfermedades crónicas
Este documento de la versión en español del instrumento estándar de la OMS para la vigilancia de factores de riesgo de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT), el cual los países/sitios utilizarán para desarrollar su propio instrumento. Contiene las secciones principales (las casillas con fondo blanco, las secciones ampliadas (las casillas con fondo sombreado), y las respuestas posibles para Step 1, Step 2 y Step 3. Los módulos principales para cada sección contienen preguntas necesarias para calcular variables fundamentales. Las preguntas de las secciones ampliadas permiten obtener más detalles.(29/Mar/2006)
en español     PDF(207.44k)  

Veracruz Initiative for Diabetes Awareness (VIDA Project)
The monitoring system for quality of care in Mexico indicated that in 2000, only 34% of all persons with diabetes receiving care were reported to have adequate metabolic control. Subsequently, the Secretary of Health of Mexico has included diabetes as one of its health priorities. In collaboration with PAHO, an intervention project is being carried out in five primary-care centers in Veracruz, Mexico.(8/Feb/2005)
In English       HTML(5.58k)  
en español     HTML(5.79k)  

Institutional Response to Diabetes and Its Complications (IRDC): DOTA Caribbean Diabetes Initiative
The project Institutional Response to Diabetes and its Complications (IRDC) is supported by the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes (DOTA). Its main aim is to improve the quality of diabetes care in the Caribbean. This page offers a summary of the project, links to its meetings, etc.(22/Nov/2004)
In English       HTML(3.54k)  
en español     HTML(3.6k)  

Regional Core Health Data System - Indicators Glossary
Definition, technical note, type, measure units, categories, and subcategories for each indicator in the Regional Core Health Data System(26/Oct/2004)
In English       HTML(0.57k)  
en español     HTML(0.6k)  

Symposium on Diabetes Economics (São Paulo, Brazil, 27 September 2004)
The Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes (DOTA), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and PAHO--in coordination with the Latin American Diabetes Association (ALAD)--take pleasure in carrying out this symposium on one of the most important aspects of diabetes: what it costs. This page contains a summary, a fact sheet on the cost of diabetes, an agenda and the presentations.(21/Oct/2004)
In English       HTML(5.63k)  
en español     HTML(5.99k)  
em Português HTML(6.29k)  

Final Report: Institutional Response to Diabetes and Its Complications (IRDC): An Evaluation of the Quality of Diabetes Care
Diabetes care and education are among the most important aspects in the fight against diabetes. Improvement in diabetes control is linked to better quality of life and survival. The aim of this PAHO-DOTA study was to assess the quality of care for people with diabetes mellitus (DM) in four outpatient clinics in The Bahamas, one specialized clinic in Jamaica, and two hospitals in Saint Lucia. This page offers a summary and access to the full-text report, including data tables.(10/Oct/2004)
In English       HTML(5.49k)  
en español     HTML(6.07k)  

Promoting Better Health for People with Diabetes—DOTA: Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes
This brochure (available for download in color printable form with the text posted on this page) outlines the activities currently being carried out in the Region by PAHO and its partners within the framework of DOTA: education, awareness and organizational development, activities aimed at children and adolescents, epidemiology, and building blocks to control the disease.(23/Jul/2004)
In English       HTML(18.73k)  
en español     HTML(19.21k)  

An ecological analysis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence in Latin America
The objetive of this articles is to explore, for Latin America, by means of an ecological correlation analysis, the possible relationships between both the incidence and prevalence of childhood type 1 diabetes and selected hypothesized etiological factors, including race/ethnicity, geographical latitude, breast-feeding rates, per capita milk supply and coffee consumption, and wealth-related indicators such as infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, and national human development index. (Rev Panam Salud Pública 2004 15(6):388-394) (You can purchase this article)(16/Jun/2004)
In English       Full Text  
en español     Full Text  

CAMDI V Workshop: Diabetes Surveillance and Control in Central America (Montelimar, Nicaragua, 29–30 April 2004)
The objectives of this workshop were to review the progress and results of the activities related to the multinational survey of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and factors of risk for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs); to establish policies and procedures to follow for utilizing and publishing the survey data; and to contribute to designing the plan of action and strategies to be utilized for Phase 2 implementation. This page offers a summary and access to the 63-page final report, including the questionnaire. (30/Apr/2004)
In English       HTML(6.66k)  
en español     HTML(7.31k)  

Proyecto VIDA: Informe final de la 3era Sesión de Aprendizaje (SA3) (Hotel Posada Xalapan, Xalapan, Veracruz, México, 13-15 abril 2004)
La Sesión de Aprendizaje 3 (SA3) buscó reforzar las actividades de entrenamiento realizadas en los centros de salud haciendo hincapié en el control metabólico, seguimiento nutricional y cuidados de los pies, también presentarán los resultados obtenidos por los centros de salud en el Período de Acción 2 y se buscará lograr una mayor participación de los pacientes, empezando por una dramatización de su percepción de la atención de salud, seguido por grupos de trabajo para evaluación de lo vivenciado. Se presentaron los resultados de la evaluación ACIC y se abordarán los componentes del modelo de atención y los ciclos de mejoría.(15/Apr/2004)
en español     HTML(6.3k)   PDF(2025.24k)  

Proyecto VIDA: Presentaciones de la 3era Sesión de Aprendizaje (SA3) (Xalapan, Veracruz, México, 13-15 abril 2004)
Estas 11 presentaciones en PowerPoint abordan las actividades del proyecto con relación al control metabólico, al seguimiento nutricional y a los cuidados de los pies, al incluir los resultados obtenidos por los centros de salud en el Período de Acción 2 cuando se logró una mayor participación de los pacientes, seguido por grupos de trabajo de evaluación.(15/Apr/2004)
en español     HTML(5.99k)  

II PAHO-DOTA Workshop on Quality of Diabetes Care (Diabetes Research Institute/DRI, University of Miami, 14-16 May 2003)
To address the problem of the high prevalence of diabetes in English-speaking Caribbean subregion, this meeting was aimed at the following: to review the status of quality care for people with diabetes in the Caribbean; to discuss the results of the evaluation of quality of care in Jamaica, St. Lucia and the Bahamas; to review strategies to improve quality of care for people with diabetes; and to define an action plan for improvement of quality of diabetes care in the Caribbean. This page offers access to a summary, the conference presentations, and the final report. (25/Mar/2004)
In English       HTML(5.8k)  
en español     HTML(6.73k)  

Proyecto VIDA--Informe Final: 2a Sesión de Aprendizaje (SA2) (Hotel Calinda Veracruz, Veracruz, Veracruz, México, 26-28 noviembre 2003)
La SA2 consistió en conferencias de expertos nacionales e internacionales que abordaron los diferentes componentes del modelo de atención, así como grupos de trabajo que discutieron sobre la metodología de la intervención, evaluaron los cambios probados y resultados obtenidos. También se hizo una evaluación de recursos en salud (ACIC) y se realizaron conferencias de capacitación clínica. Esta página brinda un resumen y acceso al informe completo.(26/Nov/2003)
en español     HTML(4.53k)  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

CAMDI IV Workshop: Diabetes Surveillance and Control in Central America (Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 7–9 July 2003)
To face the challenge of diabetes in the Region, this fourth meeting of the CAMDI (Central American Diabetes Initiative) was aimed at follow-up activities related to the multinational survey on diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and NCD risk factors; and at coordinating strategies for the 2nd phase of the project.(31/Jul/2003)
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Proyecto VIDA--Informe final, 1era Sesión de Aprendizaje (SA1) (Hotel Misión Xalapa, Xalapa, Veracruz, México, 1-3 julio 2003)
La 1era Sesión de Aprendizaje (SA1) del Proyecto Veracruz para el Mejoramiento de la Atención a la Diabetes (VIDA) consistió en conferencias de expertos nacionales e internacionales que abordaron los diferentes componentes del modelo de atención, así como grupos de trabajo que discutieron sobre la metodología de la intervención, en la identificación de fortalezas y debilidades y de recursos comunitarios y en la conformación de un plan de acción. Esta página brinda un resumen y acceso al informe completo.(3/Jul/2003)
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The Cost of Diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean
Diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. This burden is not only related to health care costs, but also to indirect costs caused by loss of productivity from disability and premature mortality. Medical expenditures for people with diabetes are 2–3 times higher than for those not affected by diabetes. In Latin America and the Caribbean, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care costs. This paper measures the economic costs of diabetes. It has been published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, 81 (1), is part of the effort being made by the PAHO Program on Non-Communicable Diseases to combat and reduce diabetes prevalence.(23/Jan/2003)
In English       WHO  

The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life
Worldwide, healthy life expectancy can be increased by 5 to 10 years if governments and individuals work together to reduce major health risks in each Region. This report examines more than risks to health and identifies interventions that would reduce these risks, thereby increasing healthy life years. The risks to health include underweight, unsafe sex, high blood pressure, tobacco, alcohol, unsafe water and sanitation, cholesterol, indoor smoke from solid fuels, iron deficiency and overweight. (30/Oct/2002)
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en español     OMS  

CAMDI III Workshop: Diabetes Surveillance and Control in Central America (Guatemala City, Guatemala, 12-14 August 2002)
The objectives of the meeting were to help develop the Initiative in participating countries; review the methodology of the Diabetes and Hypertension Survey to ensure comparability of results; to provide technical support on various aspects of the survey; discuss and contribute elements for a standardized instrument for use in the field; and start discussing the next phase. This page offers a summary and access to the presentations and final report.(14/Aug/2002)
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Calculation for Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) by Gender for Selected Countries in Latin America & the Caribbean (1996-1999, per 100,000 pop., by gender)
These tables provide data for 1996-1999 (though rates are not available for all years in all cases) for the following NCDs: stomach cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, stroke, transport accidents, falling, firearms, drowning, respiratory trauma, electrocution, fire/smoke/burns, poisoning, other accidents, suicides, homicides, unknown intention, external causes and diabetes. The tables will be updated regularly and we invite our users to consult the site periodically for such updates. All calculations were done in accordance with International Classification of Disease (ICD), Version 10. Last update: 12 April 2004.(24/Jun/2002)
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The DOTA Workshop on Quality of Diabetes Care (Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 11-12 March 2002)
Diabetes care and education are among the most important aspects in the fight against diabetes. Improvement in diabetes control is linked to better quality of life and survival. One of the most important challenges for public health in the field of diabetes is to monitor quality of care with the aim of introducing measures to assure better outcomes. To better tackle suboptimal care in Latin America and the Caribbean, The first DOTA Workshop on Quality of Diabetes Care was held on March 11-12, 2002 in Ocho Rios Jamaica with the participation of Barbados, Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago, Jamaica and St. Lucia.(12/Mar/2002)
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Diabetes Mellitus: Fact Sheet with Country Data
This site offers some basic data on the regional incidence of diabetes and contains data tables on diagnostical values, etiological classification of glycemia disorders, and prevalence data from population surveys from different countries of the Region.(6/Feb/2002)
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Non-Communicable Diseases: Diabetes Mellitus
This document contains information on PAHO’s Diabetes Initiative for the Americas (DIA), with summaries of the various programs and projects and an overview of the prevailing situation in the Region.(16/Jan/2002)
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INSTANTANEAS: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 10, No. 5, noviembre 2001
Efectos protectores renales de los antagonistas del receptor de angiotensina II en la diabetes de tipo 2; Universalización de las pruebas de detección de la diabetes en mayores de 45 años; Insulina en aerosol; Efectos del ejercicio sobre el control de la glucemia y la masa corporal en la diabetes de tipo 2. Metaanálisis de los ensayos clínicos controlados; Prevalencia de los síntomas gastrointestinales en la diabetes; La diabetes y el riesgo de enfermedad de Alzheimer y demencia con accidente cerebrovascular en una cohorte multiétnica(15/Dec/2001)
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Normas para el desarrollo de programas de educación sobre la diabetes en América
En este articulo del Vol. 10, No. 5 de la Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, elaborado por el Comité de Educación de la Declaración de las Américas (Declaration of the Americas: DOTA), se enumeran las condiciones que debe reunir un programa de educación de pacientes con diabetes.(15/Dec/2001)
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Capture-recapture method to estimate lower extremity amputation rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
This article is from Vol. 10, No. 5, of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health. Objective: estimate rates of lower extremity amputations (LEAs) in persons with peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, trauma, neoplasm, osteomyelitis, or emphysematous gangrene in Rio de Janeiro. Conclusion: Findings show a high incidence of LEAs in Brazil, when compared to countries such as Spain, that is attributable mainly to peripheral vascular disease and diabetes mellitus.(15/Dec/2001)
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The Pan American Health Organization and World Diabetes Day
Editorial for Vol. 10, No. 5, of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, a special issue dedicated to the subject of diabetes in the Americas. (15/Dec/2001)
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Diabetes in Bolivia
This article, from Vol. 10, No. 5, of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, discusses a study whose objective was to measure the prevalence of diabetes and risk factors associated with diabetes and other chronic diseases, such as obesity and hypertension, in the adult population of four major cities of Bolivia.(15/Dec/2001)
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Guidelines for screening and managing diabetes in the United States of America
Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States of America, affecting more than 16 million persons. In response to that serious situation, two allied medical organizations recently issued new guidelines on screening and managing the disease. (From Vol. 10, No. 5, of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health.)(15/Dec/2001)
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Incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas
This article, discusses the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas as found through a thorough review of published information on the subject. It concludes that, given that most Latin American and Caribbean nations are experiencing a demographic transition, it is expected that the prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase rapidly in the near future. (Rev Panam Salud Pública, 2001 10(5):300-308)(15/Dec/2001)
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Una intervención para mejorar el control de la diabetes en Chile
El objetivo de este estudio, tomado del Vol. 10, No. 5 (noviembre 2001) de la Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, consistió en investigar en un país en desarrollo la eficacia de una intervención que incluyó la educación del paciente, la automonitorización de la glucemia y la determinación de la hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA 1c). (15/Dec/2001)
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CAMDI II Workshop on Diabetes Surveillance and Control: Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras & Nicaragua (Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 13-14 November 2000)
This meeting follows up on the First Regional CAMDI Workshop aimed at setting up national diabetes programs to face the current epidemic. The general objective of this Second Meeting was to coordinate activities related to the Multinational Survey on Diabetes, Obesity, Hypertension and Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases, and specifically to work on the survey design. This page offers a summary of the meeting and access to the full-text report.(15/Nov/2000)
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European Health21, Target 11: Healthier Living
From the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in its 48th Meeting (Copenhagen, 9/1998), this document establishes goal for the year 2015, by which time people from all social levels should have adopted a healthier lifestyle through an integrated approach. These dietary norms information that health professionals can impart to their clients to help them prevent illness and promote good health by following a healthy diet based primarily on vegetables. This HTML page contains the abstract and provides access to the full-text WHO document in downloadable PDF (416 KB).(22/Jun/2000)
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CAMDI I Workshop on Diabetes Surveillance and Control: Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras & Nicaragua (San Salvador, El Salvador, 8-9 March 2000)
Diabetes is a health problem of global proportions. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetes will reach 65 million by 2025. The objective of this first meeting, held at the Hotel Camino Real in San Salvador in March 2000, was to start coordinating activities for diabetes surveillance and control in the participating countries. This page summarizes the meeting and provides access to the full-text report.(9/Mar/2000)
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CARMEN: Country Profiles
The CARMEN Initiative addresses all risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases and non-intentional injuries. However, the specific risk factors that each CARMEN program addresses are based upon a situational analysis and the priorities of each country.(24/Aug/1999)
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CARMEN: Protocol and Guidelines. Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI) Programme.
This document from the World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) contains information on the protocol and guidelines for the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI) Programme.(24/Aug/1997)
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