Acute Respiratory Infections

For more information, visit the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) Page of the Disease Prevention and Control Area of the Pan American Health Organization.

   Other Resources
   Periodical Publications
   Technical Documents


Influenza A (H1N1): Lessons Learned and Preparing for the Future
High-level Meeting on Influenza A (H1N1). Mexico. 3 July 2009.- Director's closing remarks - 'I believe that we are reaping the fruits of years of planning and preparation, which have been very important and, since 2007, have put most of the countries on a rather similar and equitable plane in terms of their ability to participate and implement the International Health Regulations' ... 'this is the real political challenge, always bearing in mind the fundamental principles of protecting the population, solidarity, and equity, and above all trust among peoples and among authorities'.(13/Jul/2009)
In English       HTML(12.61k)   PDF(181.44k)  
en español     HTML(13.62k)   PDF(179.49k)  

A H1N1 - An Outbreak Timeline
Science Magazine. 8 May 2009.- "I'm amazed at the capacity we have with the information and communication technologies," says epidemiologist Mirta Roses Periago, head of the Pan American Health Organization. "We used to do things with our hands and smelling and looking at the patients." During the past few weeks, she notes, scientists have rapidly shared sequences of the viruses, digital images of patient x-rays, and electron micrographs of the new H1N1.
"At this point in history, this is the best surveillance we've ever had," said Keiji Fukuda, one of WHO's assistant director generals.
Read more in Science Magazine »
PDF Article »(8/May/2009)
In English       .   

Almost a quarter of all disease caused by environmental exposure
As much as 24% of global disease is caused by environmental exposures which can be averted. Well-targeted interventions can prevent much of this environmental risk, the World Health Organization (WHO) demonstrates in a report issued today. The report further estimates that more than 33% of disease in children under the age of 5 is caused by environmental exposures. WHO report Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease(16/Jun/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  
en Français    OMS  


Priorities in Health
Two overarching themes emerge from the extensive research and analyses in this World Bank publication: (1) Current resources can yield substantial health gains if knowledge of cost-effective interventions were applied more fully. (2) Additional resources are needed in low-income countries to minimize the glaring inequities in health care. Increased resources would provide highly-effective interventions, expand research, and extend basic health coverage to more people. WHO contributed to this publication.(3/Apr/2006)
In English       DCPP  
en español     DCPP  
en Français    DCPP  
em Português DCPP  

Investigaciones Operativas sobre Atención Integrada a las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia (AIEPI)
Este volumen de investigaciones operativas prioritarias sobre la estrategia AIEPI incluye un conjunto de protocolos diseñados para su aplicación en los niveles locales que permiten, a la vez que evaluar resultados de la aplicación de la estrategia AIEPI, estudiar otros aspectos de la salud infantil que pueden merecer consideración adicional y que deben por lo tanto hacer parte de dicha estrategia. Esta página brinda un resumen del libro y acceso al texto completo en archivos de PDF.(30/Apr/2001)
en español     HTML(11.97k)  

Investigaciones operativas sobre el control de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) en Brasil
Las investigaciones operativas están orientadas a la obtención de datos prácticos y a la toma de decisiones relativas a la aplicación de las intervenciones y a las actividades de control. Este libro consiste de 22 estudios etnográficos focalizados (EEF) como instrumentos destinados a preparar los elementos de los componentes de comunicación, educación y capacitación eficaces para concretizar las actividades de control de las IRA. La página brinda acceso a un resumen y al libro completo dividido en capítulos, en PDF.(31/Jan/1999)
en español     HTML(15.23k)  


SARS: Global Alert, Global Response
This presentation of eight PowerPoint slides outlines how vital the global alert and response was in containing the worldwide SARS epidemic, how SARS is transmitted, its economic effects, and lessons learned for future application.(30/Jun/2003)
In English       PowerPoint  
en español     PowerPoint  

Master Infection Control Presentation: Infection Control Measures to Prevent Hospital Transmission (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/SARS)
This six-part course in PDF copies of PowerPoint slides was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WHO/WPRO) with the objective of training hospital personnel in the proper prevention and control procedures for SARS, both for their own protection and to prevent hospital transmission. Sections include clinical management, personal protection equipment, scrubbing hands, patient management and transport, laboratory procedures, educating the public, and laundry and disinfection guidelines. The link to WPRO presentations appears on the PAHO web to facilitate distribution and use among hospital staff in the English-speaking countries of the Americas.(30/Apr/2003)
In English       HTML  
en español     HTML(3.83k)  

Other Resources

Avian Influenza
This page offers a comprehensive, organized listing of all PAHO materials on the topic of avian influenza (bird flu), as well as links to other sites with relevant information, mainly at WHO and in the Region of the Americas.(28/Apr/2006)
In English       HTML(20.81k)  
en español     HTML(22.18k)  

Investing in Global Health: 'Best Buys' and Priorities for Action in Developing Countries
These three new volumes from the World Bank Disease Control Priorities Project--Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (2nd ed.), Priorities in Health, and Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors--are part of an ongoing initiative to provide technical resources to improve the health systems, and ultimately the health of people, in developing countries.(3/Apr/2006)
In English       DCP Site  

Pandemic Influenza
This page offers an organized listing of everything on the PAHO web on the topic of pandemic influenza, as well as links to other related sites, mainly at WHO and in the Region of the Americas.(31/Mar/2006)
In English       HTML(18.08k)  
en español     HTML(18.39k)  

Periodical Publications

Epidemiological Alerts Archives, 2003–2008
(Note: Series renamed, formerly EID Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas.)
The purpose of these alerts is to disseminate information on the latest public-health events that have been identified as risks to health, trade, and/or international travel. Most of these events are primarily due to infectious agents, while others are due to chemical or physical agents. The PAHO Epidemiological Alerts published at the regional level (for the Americas) complement the WHO Disease Outbreak News published at the global level. The latest issues can be found at the new site, 2009 onwards.(3/Apr/2009)
In English       HTML(36.2k)  
en español     HTML(40.91k)  

Avian Influenza: Frequently Asked Questions (Weekly Epidemiological Record 80:44, pp. 377-384)
This list of over 20 of the most common questions on avian influenza (bird flu) has been issued by the World Health Organization's weekly epidemiogical report.(19/Oct/2005)
In English       WHO/WER  
en español     HTML(32.41k)   PDF(402.23k)  
en Français    OMS/REH  

Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER): Vol. 80, No. 33, pp. 277-288
This issue contains two articles on influenza: Outbreak news on H5N1 avian influenza: first steps towards development of a human vaccine; and Influenza Vaccines: WHO Position Paper. The theme of the latter is seasonal influenza and the effects of antiviral vaccines on public health, in the framework of large-scale vaccine programs.(19/Aug/2005)
In English       WHO/WER  
en español     PDF(183.37k)  
en Français    OMS/REH  

Technical Documents

Infection Control Strategies for Specific Procedures in Health-Care Facilities: Epidemic-prone and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases, A Quick Reference Guide
This document is addressed to infection control professionals, occupational health specialists and other professionals involved in patient care in health-care facilities. It is designed to provide quick reference guidance on infection prevention and control to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care.(20/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(237.06k)  
en español     PDF(158.05k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10