Visit the Campylobacter Page for an organized listing of the materials available on this topic.

   Technical Documents

Technical Documents

Sterilization Manual for Health Centers
The purpose of this manual is to inform health workers on the protocols and simple procedures that have been developed to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The guidelines included in this handbook show which steps to follow in cleaning, preparing, sterilizing, storing, and transporting hospital equipment so as to guarantee sterile materials--awareness of which is crucial in providing patients with safe health care. This page provides a summary and access to the full text in Spanish.(31/Dec/2008)
In English       HTML(5.93k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(3124.63k)  

International Health Regulations (IHR)
The International Health Regulations are an international legal instrument that covers measures for preventing the transnational spread of infectious diseases. The newly adopted IHR (2005) has as purpose and scope “to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade”. This page provides a detailed description and information on progress of its implementation, plus relevant links.(24/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(6.76k)  
en español     HTML(17.04k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

Partnerships to Contain Antimicrobial Resistance in South America: An Integrated Approach
Maintaining a flexible and participatory approach has been critical to developing local strategies to prevent and contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR). As a result, SAIDI partners have created individualized interventions in each of the participating countries corresponding to the specifics of local contexts. This fact sheet provides more information on SAIDI.(13/Mar/2008)
In English       HTML(9.86k)   PDF(72.11k)  
en español     HTML(11.1k)   PDF(76.14k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

PAHO Regional Program on Food Safety: Working to Prevent and Control Food-Borne Diseases
This page describes the mission, objective, and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Food Safety.(2/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(7.34k)  
en español     HTML(7.72k)  

Regional Program on Antimicrobial Resistance: Combatting Resistance to Antibiotics in the Americas
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Antimicrobial Resistance, which deals with the topic of resistance to antibiotics and bacterial and hospital (nosocomial) infections. It contains links to the WHO Global Strategy and main PAHO and WHO websites on the topic.(13/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(3.17k)  
en español     HTML(3.55k)  

Food Safety and Foodborne Illness (WHO Fact Sheet No. 237)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on food safety and foodborne diseases (FBDs), Food safety is an increasingly important public-health issue. Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to improve food safety. These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food-safety problems and rising consumer concerns. Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk. Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public-health problem, both in developed and developing countries. (24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Foodborne Diseases, Emerging (WHO Fact Sheet No. 124)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on emerging foodborne diseases (FBDs). Some foodborne diseases are well recognized but are considered emerging because they have recently become more common, e.g. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Listeria monocytogenes, trematodes, 'mad cow disease'. New foodborne disease threats occur for a number of reasons. Causes include increase in international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system, as well as human demographics and behaviour.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Antimicrobial Resistance (WHO Fact Sheet No. 194)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on anticrobial resistance (resistance to antibiotics). The great gains in health achieved by the development of antibiotics are now seriously jeopardized by another recent development: the emergence and spread of microbes that are resistant to cheap and effective first-choice, or "first-line" drugs. The bacterial infections which contribute most to human disease are also those in which emerging and microbial resistance is most evident: diarrhoeal diseases, respira­tory tract infections, meningitis, sexually transmitted infec­tions, and hospital-acquired infections.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Campylobacter (WHO Fact Sheet No. 255)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on Campylobacter, bacteria that are a major cause of diarrhoeal illness in humans and are generally regarded as the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In developed and developing countries, they cause more cases of diarrhoea than, for example, foodborne Salmonella bacteria. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections in children under the age of two years are especially frequent, sometimes resulting in death. In almost all developed countries, the incidence of human campylobacter infections has been steadily increasing for several years. The reasons for this are unknown.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Use of antimicrobials outside human medicine and resultant antimicrobial resistance in humans (WHO Fact Sheet No. 268)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on how antimicrobials have also been used increasingly for the treatment of bacterial disease in animals, fish and plants. In addition, they became an important element of intense animal husbandry because of their observed growth-enhancing effect, when added in sub-therapeutic doses to animal feed. Some of the newly-emerging resistant bacteria in animals are transmitted to humans; mainly via meat and other food of animal origin or through direct contact with farm animals.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Annual Report of the Monitoring/Surveillance Network for Resistance to Antibiotics, 2004 (Brasilia, Brazil, 27-29 July 2005)
The report of this annual meeting provides country data for 2004 on antimicrobials, bacterial and hospital (nosocomial) infections, and enteric and non-enteric pathogens.(6/Oct/2006)
In English       HTML(7.45k)  
en español     HTML(7.37k)   PDF(2516.12k)  

The 5 Key Ways Project: Adapting the WHO Manual on Food Safety for Use in Guatemalan Elementary Schools
Taking into account that schools are an important space to promote the development of healthy lifestyles in children, the manual Bringing Food Safety Home: Using the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food has been adapted for use in primary schools in Guatemala. This page describes the project and offers access to the three manuals, the poster, the INCAP fact sheet, and the progress report.(11/Jul/2006)
In English       HTML(6.48k)  
en español     HTML(6.88k)  

The 5 key ways to keep your food safe (Content Manual)
The purpose of this manual is to serve as tool or educational/reference guide for the educational community (elementary-school principals, teachers, and pupils, as well as local school boards) for teaching and learning five basic ways to keep food safe and prevent it from becoming contaminated. The contents have been adapted so that those in charge of preparing school meals can be trained in this subject, with the aim of ensuring safe and healthy food for students. This page offers an executive summary in English and access to the 34-page manual in Spanish.(10/Jul/2006)
In English       HTML(10.01k)  
en español     HTML(11.08k)   PDF(1164.6k)  

Activity Book, The 5 key ways to keep your food safe (Teacher's Guide)
The objective of this Manual is to provide materials to help teachers so that they in turn can help pupils learn the 5 key ways to keep your food safe in a more entertaining and dynamic way. It is a guide that enables participatory learning such that students can incorporate this knowledge into their daily life, bringing about changes in their behavior and that of their family in a way that will improve their health and well-being.(10/Jul/2006)
In English       HTML(8k)  
en español     HTML(8.61k)  

Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.(20/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.91k)  

Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease
How much disease could be prevented through better management of our environment? The environment influences our health in many ways — through exposures to physical, chemical and biological risk factors, and through related changes in our behaviour in response to those factors. To answer this question, the available scientific evidence was summarized and more than 100 experts were consulted for their estimates of how much environmental risk factors contribute to the disease burden of 85 diseases. This report summarizes the results globally, with the access page providing an abstract, an executive summary, and access to the e-book.(16/Jun/2006)
In English       WHO  

A Guide to Healthy Food Markets
With over half of the world’s population now living in urban areas, food markets have become important sources of affordable food for many millions of people. At the same time, however, such markets have been associated with major outbreaks of diseases, including cholera, SARS and avian influenza. This link goes to the full-text 42-page guide on the WHO website.(18/Apr/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  

Guía para el tratamiento de las enfermedades infecciosas
Esta guía es una actualización del Modelo de guía clínica y formulario para el tratamiento de las enfermedades infecciosas publicado en 2002. Esta página brinda un resumen y acceso a texto completo y a la tabla de antibióticos que lo acompaña.(21/Feb/2006)
en español     HTML(13.62k)  

Nosocomial Infection Program Rapid Evaluation Guide (Washington, DC, July 2005)
The purpose of this guide is to (a) provide orientation for hospital directors on review and improvement of the nosocomial infection programs that all such facilities should have, and (b) provide a general overview rather than specifics on the status of hospital nosocomial infection prevention and control activities. This page provides a description and access to the full text.(31/Jul/2005)
In English       HTML(5.46k)   PDF(401.81k)  
en español     HTML(6.01k)   PDF(324.36k)  

WHA58/27: Improving the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance
In May 2005, the World Health Assembly adopted this resolution for the global containment of resistance to antimicrobials (antibiotics), which constitutes not only the WHO global mandate but also the PAHO mandate for the Americas.(25/May/2005)
In English       WHA58/27  
en español     WHA58/27  
en Français    WHA58/27  

A58/62: Seventh Report of Committee A
This report from the 58th World Health Assembly in 2005 deals with (1) antimicrobial resistance as a threat to global health security, and its containment; and (2) Strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness and response, and enhancing laboratory biosafety. It set forth the WHO global mandate in this regard and has been adopted by PAHO for the Americas.(25/May/2005)
In English       A58/62  
en español     A58/62  
en Français    A58/62  

WHO-EB115.R6: Antimicrobial Resistance: A Threat to Global Health Security
In January 2005, the WHO Executive Board adopted this resolution to deal with the danger to public health raised by antimicrobial resistance, or resistance to antibiotics, recommending that it be passed by that year's World Health Assembly. It laid the groundwork not only the WHO global mandate but also the PAHO mandate for the Americas.(22/Jan/2005)
In English       WHO-EC115.R6  
en español     WHO-EB115.R6  
en Français    OMS-EB115.R6  

Recommendations of a Group of Experts: Standards for the Use of Automated Identification Systems for Bacteria and Susceptibility to Antimicrobials (Brasilia, Brazil, 26–28 October 2004)
The general objective of the Expert Committee was to define the processes that guarantee the quality of the information generated by automated systems for identifying bacteria and testing susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Specifically, they wanted to identify critical points and criteria for internal quality control, define a program for external performance evaluation, and prepare a short guide for technical evaluation visits. This page offers a summary in English and access to the full text in Spanish. (28/Oct/2004)
In English       HTML(9.38k)  
en español     HTML(9.53k)   PDF(303k)  

CD45.R8: Disaster Preparedness and Response
This report from the PAHO Directing Council lays forth the Organization's mandate for emergency and disaster preparedness and response in hospitals, clinics, and primary-care facilities in the Americas.(1/Oct/2004)
In English       CD45.R8  
en español     CD45.R8  
en Français    CD45.R8  
em Português CD45.R8  

Annual Report of the Monitoring/Surveillance Network for Resistance to Antibiotics 2003
The annual report on surveillance of resistance to antibiotics in participating countries of the Region of the Americas is discussed and analyzed for the purpose of taking measures for continuous quality improvement of data and its usefulness in orienting clinicians on the rational use of antibiotics. This page offers a summary with recommendations and access to the full text in Spanish (presented at the meeting in Lima in 2004).(2/Jul/2004)
In English       HTML(7.98k)  
en español     HTML(8.06k)   PDF(8835.28k)  

Third Joint Meeting of the Networks for Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 26-28 February 2004)
The objectives of this yearly meeting were (a) to present and discuss subregional activities carried out by the EID surveillance networks; and (2) to identify commitments and activities for the period 2004/2005, taking into account the guidelines of the plans of action of each one of them. This page provides the executive summary and access to the 124-page report in PDF, with links to the individual chapters.(28/Feb/2004)
In English       HTML(14.42k)  
en español     HTML(16.37k)   PDF(4489.77k)  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Annual Regional Report from Countries Participating in the Network for Monitoring and Surveillance of Resistance to Antibiotics (2002 data) (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 10–13 May 2003)
As part of the body of knowledge needed to combat the development of resistance to antimicrobials, since 1997 19 countries of the Region have been part of a network that makes yearly reports on the percentages of resistance to enteric bacteria found in the community and in hospitals. This report provides the data from 2002, by country, with maps, tables, and figures.(13/May/2003)
In English       HTML(13.38k)  
en español     HTML(13.65k)  

Recommendations of an Expert Committee: Performance Evaluation Standards for the Kirby-Bauer Antibiogram (Areas of Inhibition or Interpretation) (Santiago, Chile, 24–26 February 2003)
The objectives of this meeting were to define and document the standards that will be applied to the performance evaluation of laboratories participating in the Latin American Network for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance, document the basic quality control standards for the laboratories that participate in the national surveillance networks, and draft recommendations for maintaining performance quality in all participating countries. This page contains a summary and the full-text report. (26/Feb/2003)
In English       HTML(8.47k)   PDF(209.55k)  
en español     HTML(9.25k)   PDF(149.56k)  

Model for a Clinical Handbook for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Antimicrobial substances are those either produced by microorganisms (antibiotics produced by bacteria, fungi or actinomicetos) or chemically synthesized (sulfa drugs, quinolones) that have the capacity to destroy, impede, or delay the multiplication of others microorganisms. In medical practice, both are called “antibiotics.” Antibiotic therapy is used to treat patients showing symptoms and clinical signs of infection. This guide was produced in Spanish for use in Latin American countries; this page includes a summary in English and access to the full text in Spanish.(31/Dec/2002)
In English       HTML(13.64k)  
en español     HTML(13.98k)  

Hurrying Toward Disaster?
This article describes how new, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of globalization, population growth and alterations to ecological systems can affect global health, and how we must prepare to combat them. (23/Aug/2002)
In English       Perspectives in Health  
en español     Perspectivas de Salud  

Annual Regional Meeting of Countries Participating in the Monitoring/Surveillance Network on Resistance to Antibiotics (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 17-19 April 2002)
As part of the knowledge necessary to combat the development of antimicrobial resistance, since 1997 20 countries in the Region have formed a network that reports annually on the percentages of resistance to enteric bacterias. Since 2000, surveillance has expanded to other species found in communities and in hospitals. This page offers an executive summary and a link to the full-text document in Spanish containing the country reports.(19/Apr/2002)
In English       HTML(8.99k)  
en español     HTML(10.78k)  

Annual Regional Meeting of Countries Participating in the Network for Monitoring/Surveillance of Resistance to Antibiotics (Asunción, Paraguay, 31 January–February 2001)
This HTML page offers the executive summary of and recommendations from the conference in English, with a link to the Spanish page containing the full-text document (138 pages, in PDF) with glossary, country data, performance and laboratory evaluations, quality-control systems, list of participants, bibliography, etc.(28/Feb/2001)
In English       HTML(5.78k)  
en español     HTML(7.07k)  

¡Los antibióticos combaten las bacterias! Pero algunas bacterias se están haciendo resistentes ...
Este folleto en colores, en forma imprimible, se presta para distribución a través de campañas de educación pública sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana, para distribución a la gente en lenguage común y fácil de entender.(1/Jan/2001)
en español     PDF(276.24k)  

Farmacorresistencia a los Antimicrobianos: Panorama regional, datos por microorganismo y país
La resistencia antimicrobiana es un importante problema de salud pública que afecta a la mayoría de los países del mundo. El incremento del uso de antibióticos, su mal uso y otros factores han dado lugar en las últimas décadas a la emergencia de resistencia antimicrobiana entre diversos microorganismos. Los países de la Región de las Américas comparten la preocupación por este tema.(13/Dec/2000)
en español     HTML(35.2k)  

Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Americas: Strategic Plan for Surveillance of Resistance to Antibiotics
In light of the threat to public health posed by the growing problem of drug resistance, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) convened an expert group meeting, which was held in Asunción, Paraguay, on 27-29 January 1999 (see List of Participants in Annex 6). The participants drafted a three-year program for addressing this problem in the Region. The program's resources will support interventions aimed at the control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance in the following countries: Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. The document is available in MS Word (243 KB) and pdf (193 KB). (27/Jan/1999)
In English       WORDL(208.38k)   PDF(147.5k)  
en español     WORDL(159.38k)   PDF(159.38k)  

WHA51.17: Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases: Antimicrobial Resistance
In 1998, the 51st World Health Assembly adopted this resolution, setting forth the WHO global mandate for the fight against resistance to antibiotics as well as for adopting new approaches for dealing with emerging diseases. PAHO has adopted this mandate for the Americas.(16/May/1998)
In English       PDF(108.5k)  
en español     PDF(123.79k)  
en Français    PDF