Emerging/Reemerging Diseases

Visit the Emerging/Reemerging Diseases page for an organized listing of the materials available on this topic.

   Technical Documents

Technical Documents

Sterilization Manual for Health Centers
The purpose of this manual is to inform health workers on the protocols and simple procedures that have been developed to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The guidelines included in this handbook show which steps to follow in cleaning, preparing, sterilizing, storing, and transporting hospital equipment so as to guarantee sterile materials--awareness of which is crucial in providing patients with safe health care. This page provides a summary and access to the full text in Spanish.(31/Dec/2008)
In English       HTML(5.93k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(3124.63k)  

Infection Control Strategies for Specific Procedures in Health-Care Facilities: Epidemic-prone and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases, A Quick Reference Guide
This document is addressed to infection control professionals, occupational health specialists and other professionals involved in patient care in health-care facilities. It is designed to provide quick reference guidance on infection prevention and control to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care.(20/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(237.06k)  
en español     PDF(158.05k)  

International Health Regulations (IHR)
The International Health Regulations are an international legal instrument that covers measures for preventing the transnational spread of infectious diseases. The newly adopted IHR (2005) has as purpose and scope “to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade”. This page provides a detailed description and information on progress of its implementation, plus relevant links.(24/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(6.76k)  
en español     HTML(17.04k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Number of Cholera Cases in the Americas (1990–2006)
This Excel PDF table shows the number of reported cases of cholera in the Region and in the countries from 1990 to 2006.(8/Aug/2007)
In English       PDF(47.66k)  
en español     PDF(26.54k)  

Epidemic-prone & pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases: Infection prevention & control in health-care facilities, Summary guidance
This 44-page handbook provides advice for health-care workers on infection control of acute respiratory diseases (ARDs): reporting and isolating suspected cases; applying standard precautions, standard and droplet precautions, contact and droplet precautions, airborne precautions, and ventilating with regard to influenza-like illness (ILI) and viral, bacterial, and novel ARDs (e.g. SARS).(30/Jun/2007)
In English       PDF(2793.65k)  
en español     PDF(2493.12k)  

Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic- and Pandemic-Prone Acute Respiratory Diseases in Health Care: WHO Interim Guidelines
The purpose of this document is to provide infection control guidance to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care, with emphasis on acute respiratory diseases that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern as defined in the International Health Regulations (2005; Annex 1). Managers of health-care facilities may also consider using this guidance to assist them in preparation for epidemics and pandemics. It is intended for use by government planners, healthcare facility administrators, infection control professionals, occupational health specialists, other professionals involved in patient care, and direct care providers.(29/Jun/2007)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(1881.78k)  

PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response: Working to Deal with Outbreaks in the Americas
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response, mainly responsible for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, disease outbreak management, implementation of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]), assessment of national surveillance capacity, and related issues.(13/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(3.53k)  
en español     HTML(3.64k)  

The PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases and its activities to support the Member States in their fight against emerging viral infections of epidemic character.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(2.47k)  
en español     HTML(2.68k)  

Foodborne Diseases, Emerging (WHO Fact Sheet No. 124)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on emerging foodborne diseases (FBDs). Some foodborne diseases are well recognized but are considered emerging because they have recently become more common, e.g. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Listeria monocytogenes, trematodes, 'mad cow disease'. New foodborne disease threats occur for a number of reasons. Causes include increase in international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system, as well as human demographics and behaviour.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Drug-Resistant Salmonella (WHO Fact Sheet No. 139)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on Salmonellosis, one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne diseases. It constitutes a major public health burden and represents a significant cost in many countries. Millions of human cases are reported worldwide every year and the disease results in thousands of deaths. Salmonellosis is caused by the bacteria Salmonella. Today, there are over 2500 known types, or serotypes, of Salmonella. Recent studies provide increasing evidence of adverse human health consequences due to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms. These consequences can be divided into two categories: (1) infections that would otherwise not have occurred; and (2) increased frequency of treatment failures and increased severity of infections. (24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Antimicrobial Resistance (WHO Fact Sheet No. 194)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on anticrobial resistance (resistance to antibiotics). The great gains in health achieved by the development of antibiotics are now seriously jeopardized by another recent development: the emergence and spread of microbes that are resistant to cheap and effective first-choice, or "first-line" drugs. The bacterial infections which contribute most to human disease are also those in which emerging and microbial resistance is most evident: diarrhoeal diseases, respira­tory tract infections, meningitis, sexually transmitted infec­tions, and hospital-acquired infections.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Campylobacter (WHO Fact Sheet No. 255)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on Campylobacter, bacteria that are a major cause of diarrhoeal illness in humans and are generally regarded as the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In developed and developing countries, they cause more cases of diarrhoea than, for example, foodborne Salmonella bacteria. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections in children under the age of two years are especially frequent, sometimes resulting in death. In almost all developed countries, the incidence of human campylobacter infections has been steadily increasing for several years. The reasons for this are unknown.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Cholera (WHO Fact Sheet No. 107)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on cholera, an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. Vomiting also occurs in most patients. However, most persons infected with V. cholerae do not become ill, although the bacterium is present in their faeces for 7-14 days. When illness does occur, more than 90% of episodes are of mild or moderate severity and are difficult to distinguish clinically from other types of acute diarrhea. Less than 10% of ill persons develop typical cholera with signs of moderate or severe dehydration.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Use of antimicrobials outside human medicine and resultant antimicrobial resistance in humans (WHO Fact Sheet No. 268)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on how antimicrobials have also been used increasingly for the treatment of bacterial disease in animals, fish and plants. In addition, they became an important element of intense animal husbandry because of their observed growth-enhancing effect, when added in sub-therapeutic doses to animal feed. Some of the newly-emerging resistant bacteria in animals are transmitted to humans; mainly via meat and other food of animal origin or through direct contact with farm animals.(23/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.(20/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.91k)  

Veterinary Public Health at PAHO
This page provides general information on PAHO's activities in the area of veterinary public health and its strategies to face current issues and challenges involving zoonoses, foodborne diseases and food safety. It also provides information and links for the Veterinary Public Health Unit, newly relocated to its regional center in Brazil, and to international partners.(15/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(13.31k)  
en español     HTML(14.53k)  

Vth Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Amazon Countries
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.(24/Jan/2006)
In English       HTML(18.76k)  
en español     HTML(18.69k)   PDF(3080.23k)  

VIth Meeting of the Southern Cone Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 4–5 March 2005)
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.(5/Mar/2005)
In English       HTML(28.06k)  
en español     HTML(30.9k)   PDF(2230.19k)  

Workshop: Capacity-Building for Tuberculosis Control, with Specific Focus on TB/HIV Control
Purpose: To build country capacity for tuberculosis control in the CAREC Member Countries (CMCs), taking into account that HIV epidemic represents the main threat for TB control. Objectives: Strengthen the National Tuberculosis Programs (NTPs) through the upgrading of knowledge and skills of managers and coordinators in all aspects of prevention and control of tuberculosis, including programme management, DOTS, surveillance, case detection, diagnosis, care and treatment and program operations; and improve the performance of National Tuberculosis Programs (NTPs) and National AIDS Programs (NAPs) regarding the control of the TB/HIV epidemic. This page offers access to the complete workshop CD.(18/Feb/2005)
In English       HTML(5.71k)   CD  

PAHO-CDC Generic Proposal for Influenza Surveillance
Given the need to expand influenza surveillance, PAHO--in collaboration with CDC-- developed a new Generic Protocol for Influenza Surveillance (GPIS). The GPIS seeks to harmonize influenza surveillance throughout the Region and ensure that any single case of influenza caused by a new viral subtype be detected, as required by the IHR 2005.(15/Dec/2004)
In English       HTML(3.11k)   PDF(4691.5k)  
en español     HTML(3.42k)   PDF(4950.53k)  

IInd International Workshop on TB Control in Prisons (Lima, Peru, 18–20 August 2004)
This second workshop is aimed at national TB program and prison-system directors. Objectives are to present, analyze and discuss recent epidemiological data on TB in prisons in the Region; assess the progress made by National TB Programs (NTPs) and prison health authorities towards the action plans for TB control in prisons (developed at the first workshop); and strengthen collaboration between NTPs and prison authorities in the Region. Presentations, key documents, and Action Plan (in Spanish and Portuguese), as well as conclusions and agreements, now online via this page.(23/Nov/2004)
In English       HTML(5.78k)  
en español     HTML(10.36k)  

CD45.R8: Disaster Preparedness and Response
This report from the PAHO Directing Council lays forth the Organization's mandate for emergency and disaster preparedness and response in hospitals, clinics, and primary-care facilities in the Americas.(1/Oct/2004)
In English       CD45.R8  
en español     CD45.R8  
en Français    CD45.R8  
em Português CD45.R8  

Guía sobre atención integral de personas que viven con la coinfección de TB/VIH en América Latina y el Caribe
Este documento es parte de una serie de Guías que promueven la Estrategia de Atención Integral Construyendo Paso a Paso para las personas viviendo con VIH/SIDA. La estrategia resulta de un enfoque multidisciplinario e integrador multisectorial. La finalidad de las actividades de colaboración TB/VIH es lograr: (1) reducir la incidencia de VIH entre los pacientes con TB, (2) reducir la incidencia de TB entre las PVVS y (3) mejorar la atención de las personas coinfectadas (PTB/VIH). Esta página brinda un resumen y acceso a la guía completa. (1/Aug/2004)
en español     HTML(7.9k)  

Guidelines for HIV Surveillance among Tuberculosis Patients (2nd ed.)
The main objective of these guidelines is to provide a framework for the methods to be used for measuring HIV prevalence among tuberculosis patients and to encourage implementation of HIV surveillance. The guidelines are aimed at managers of national tuberculosis programs (NTPs) and national AIDS programs (NAPs), those responsible for HIV surveillance, and public-health decision-makers at national and subnational level. This page offers a summary, lists the recommendations, and links to the e-book on the WHO website.(29/Jul/2004)
In English       HTML(9.46k)  
en español     HTML(11.97k)  
en Français    HTML(11.41k)  

Tuberculosis: A Manual for Medical Students
This manual aims to inform medical students and medical practitioners about the best practices for managing tuberculosis patients, taking into account the community interventions defined by the National Tuberculosis Program. It contains basic information that can be used in training medical students; in supervised group work, presentations and discussions; in refresher courses for practicing physicians and for their personal study. PAHO is in the process of translating this manual into Spanish to appear presently via the PAHO website.(6/Jul/2004)
In English       OMS  

Frequently Asked Questions on the Proposed Revision of the International Health Regulations (IHRs)
These 21 questions have been made available to the countries for the revision process of the International Health Regulations (IHRs) currently in progress. The revisions will be discussed and ratified during the upcoming World Health Assembly in May 2005.(17/Jun/2004)
In English       WHO: IHR FAQs  
en español     HTML(35.17k)  
en Français    OMS, Questions RSI  

Regional Meeting of the Tuberculosis Laboratory Network (Mexico City, 6–8 September 2004)
The PAHO TB Program has just published (in Spanish) the final report for this meeting, the objectives of which were (1) to analyze and discuss aspects related to the areas of quality control, National Tuberculosis Programs (NTPs) using current and new techniques, and TB Laboratory Networks managing information; (2) become acquainted with the experiences of selected countries that have successfully dealt with these areas; (3) get to know the work of the laboratories currently carrying out reference functions in the Region; (4) distribute and discuss regional proposals; and (5) promote collaboration and communication networks among those in charge of TB Laboratories and the Heads of National TB Programs. (9/Jun/2004)
In English       HTML(3.88k)  
en español     HTML(4.08k)  

Final Report of the International Workshop on Tuberculosis Control in Prisons (San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 11–13 August, 2003)
Prisons represent a challenge for tuberculosis control authorities. They promote the transmission of the disease by sheltering a vulnerable population that often lacks access to timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Prisons have therefore been labeled as TB breeding grounds. This page offers a summary of the report of the August 2003 meeting on TB in prisons and access to the 25-page final report in PDF (with tables, figures and photographs) and a list of useful links.(31/May/2004)
In English       HTML(8.11k)  
en español     HTML(8.85k)  

Yellow Fever: Map Depicting Cases in Proportion to Deaths (South America, 1999–2004)
This map quantitatively depicts cases of yellow fever in proportion to deaths from it, using pie charts per affected area of South America, from 1999 to 2004.(24/May/2004)
In English       HTML(1.94k)  
en español     HTML(2.2k)  
en Français    HTML(2.17k)  
em Português HTML(2.55k)  

Number of Cases and Deaths from Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) (Region of the Americas, 1993–2003)
This data table shows the number of cases and deaths from hantavirus in the Region, by country, from 1993 to 2004.(26/Apr/2004)
In English       HTML(11.18k)  
en español     HTML(11.34k)  

Epidemiological Status of TB (Region of the Americas, 2004)
This presentation of 19 slides—including tables, figures, and maps—illustrates and summarizes the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in the Region up to 2004. It includes data on multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), TB/HIV, the extension of the DOTS/TAES strategy up to now as well as its achievements and challenges.(30/Mar/2004)
In English       PowerPoint  
en español     PowerPoint  

Third Joint Meeting of the Networks for Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 26-28 February 2004)
The objectives of this yearly meeting were (a) to present and discuss subregional activities carried out by the EID surveillance networks; and (2) to identify commitments and activities for the period 2004/2005, taking into account the guidelines of the plans of action of each one of them. This page provides the executive summary and access to the 124-page report in PDF, with links to the individual chapters.(28/Feb/2004)
In English       HTML(14.42k)  
en español     HTML(16.37k)   PDF(4489.77k)  

Position of WHO's Roll Back Malaria Department on Malaria Treatment Policy
This WHO position paper outlines its current policy and recommendations regarding malaria treatment, including the drugs used and how it approaches the issue of multidrug resistance (MDR) in developing countries.(26/Nov/2003)
In English       HTML(10.49k)  

Iniciativa de los países de baja prevalencia en tuberculosis
Esta hoja brinda un resumen de la iniciativa, una hoja informativa sobre la reunión de 2003, y los informes finales de 2001 y 1999, con resúmenes de la situación de los cuatros países involucrados (Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba y Uruguay), datos estadísticos, conclusiones, y recomendaciones tantas técnicas como operacionales.(14/Nov/2003)
en español     HTML(4.77k)  

Practical Guide for in vivo Antimalarial Drug-Efficacy Studies in the Americas (RAVREDA-AMI, revised version, October 2003)
Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs is one of the most serious challenges facing national malaria control programs in the Americas. While in vivo drug-efficacy studies do not require sophisticated technology, they are not simple to conduct correctly. They require a well-trained and experienced clinical and laboratory team that closely follows the study protocol. The purpose of this guide, which is based on recent experiences with antimalarial drug efficacy studies in South America, was to complement to the WHO guidelines and standardized protocols. It is hoped that this guide, together with the generic protocols, will contribute to the successful implementation of in vivo studies and a surveillance system for antimalarial drug resistance in the Americas.(3/Oct/2003)
In English       HTML(5.5k)  
en español     HTML(5.8k)  

Brote de intoxicación alimentaria en vuelo internacional del día 23 de julio de 2003
Treinta y tres (33) miembros de un grupo de 59 personas pertenecientes a una Organización Evangélica para Adolescentes, llamada Teen Mania, todos de nacionalidad norteamericana, se enfermaron en un vuelo internacional procedentes de Lima, Perú, con destino a Dallas, Texas, Estados Unidos, el miércoles 23 de julio de 2003. Esta página brinda el resumen del episodio y acceso al artículo completo.(1/Oct/2003)
en español     HTML(3.77k)   PDF(262.75k)  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Agreements: Workshop on Tuberculosis Control in Prisons (San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 11-13 August 2003)
This page offers the 11 key points for a Joint Action Plan among the authorities from each of the participating countries to try to deal with the growing problem of TB infection among prisoners.(15/Sep/2003)
In English       HTML(4.68k)  
en español     HTML(4.9k)  

IIIrd Meeting of the Coordinating Committee of the Central American Network for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (RECACER) (Panama City, Panama, 21–22 August 2003)
The objectives of this meeting were to examine the progress made by the countries of the subregion in the area of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs); update knowledge on EIDs; and strengthen working ties between countries of the region to successfully face communicable diseases, especially EIDs. This page offers a summary and a link to the final report in Spanish.(22/Aug/2003)
In English       HTML(6.41k)  
en español     HTML(7.04k)  

Encuesta de Percepción, Dengue 2000 (Informe ejecutivo)
Este informe de 34 páginas está basado en tres talleres subregionales realizados en Paraguay, Perú y Panamá durante el año 2000 como parte de las actividades estratégicas de comunicación social y participación comunitaria del Programa de Dengue de la OPS. La página brinda un resumen de la encuesta, acceso al informe completo, y enlaces a otros sitios relacionados a comunicación social y dengue.(30/Jun/2003)
en español     HTML(6.8k)   WORDL(248.32k)   PDF(489.49k)  

Warning!!!!Two new varieties of fake artesunate are being sold in mainland Asia ...
This notice, distributed at the request of WHO and a product of its Roll Back Malaria collaborative efforts in Asia, meant to be posted in health-care facilities and downloadable as such, provides the key features to aid in identifying fake Guilin Pharma artesunate blisterpack holograms, as opposed to the genuine blisterpacks. Blisterpacks with fake holograms contain no artesunate and are therefore potentially lethal when used to treat P. falciparum malaria. These counterfeit drugs have the potential of worldwide distribution, hence WHO's request to publish this announcement on the PAHO web to warn the Americas of this risk.(24/Jun/2003)
In English       PDF(282.46k)  

Estableciendo un plan de emergencia para respuesta a futuros brotes de SARS: Lineamientos para hospitales
Esta guía tiene por objetivo brindar una estructura y metodología integrales y establecidas para la respuesta inmediata a nuevas emergencias epidémicas por SARS. Ofrece un manual resumido sobre las medidas más efectivas para controlar la transmisión de SARS en los hospitales, con dos afiches que se pueden colgar en las estaciones sanitarias para educar al personal de salud sobre estos procedimientos.(6/Jun/2003)
en español     HTML(4.19k)  

SARS: Developing a Research Response (30 May 2003, NIH/NIAID, Bethesda, MD, USA)
In order to address research needs on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), PAHO/WHO participated together with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, USA, in an all-day scientific workshop at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The workshop featured international experts in the fields of coronavirus biology, vaccine development, antiviral drug development, laboratory diagnosis, SARS epidemiology, etiology and clinical management. This page provides a link to the NIH site with the presentations made at the workshop.(30/May/2003)
In English       NIH  
en español     HTML(8.13k)  

WHA56.R29: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Resolution of the World Health Assembly
This resolution was adopted on 28 May 2003 and contains a series of recommendations to countries and official bodies on how to deal with the epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).(28/May/2003)
In English       PDF(123.76k)  
en español     PDF(118.78k)  

Annual Regional Report from Countries Participating in the Network for Monitoring and Surveillance of Resistance to Antibiotics (2002 data) (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 10–13 May 2003)
As part of the body of knowledge needed to combat the development of resistance to antimicrobials, since 1997 19 countries of the Region have been part of a network that makes yearly reports on the percentages of resistance to enteric bacteria found in the community and in hospitals. This report provides the data from 2002, by country, with maps, tables, and figures.(13/May/2003)
In English       HTML(13.38k)  
en español     HTML(13.65k)  

IVth Meeting of the Southern Cone Surveillance Network for Emerging/Reemerging Infectious Diseases (Santiago, Chile, 14–16 April 2003)
This meeting involved the partication of experts from the Ministries of Health and academic institutions of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay; the US Department of Defense; and PAHO. The objective was to present and discuss topics of special interest to the area of EIO surveillance. Activites included evaluations of the level of compliance with commitments made; integration proposals for different subregional networks and activities involving global health security; surveillance of specific diseases; evaluation of the capacity of national reference laboratories; laboratory accreditation; and country reports. This page offers a summary with a link to the final report in Spanish.(16/Apr/2003)
In English       HTML(7.21k)  
en español     HTML(7.87k)  

IVth Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging and Reemerging Diseases in the Amazon Region (Belém, Pará, Brazil, 15–18 March 2003)
Participants in the meeting included staff from the Ministries of Health and academic institutions of the Amazon Countries; USAID; CDC; NMRCD; the United States Agency for International Development (USAID); the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); NMRCD; and PAHO/WHO. Objective: To report on and discuss topics of special interest regarding EID surveillance in the subregion. The participating countries reported on the current EID situation and on the fulfillment of the commitments made at the joint 2002 meeting in Atlanta, reviewed EID events detected during the past year and issued recommendations for 2003-2004 based on identified needs and established priorities. This page offers the abstract and recommendations and provides access to the executive summary and final report.(30/Mar/2003)
In English       HTML(9.3k)  
en español     HTML(9.91k)  

Pan American Health Organization's Proposed Contribution to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) / Latin America and Caribbean Bureau's Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI): Project Proposal and Workplans for Years 2 & 3 (March 2003)
This proposal describes the activities and related budget for the AMI project to be implemented over the two-year period of 2003-2004 and to be completed by September 30, 2004. It provides access to the workplans for regional and national activities as well as for the organizations working together in the project. The page provides access to a summary, the full-text report, and the individual workplans.(11/Mar/2003)
In English       HTML(20.5k)  

Central American Network for the Prevention and Control of Emerging and Reemerging Diseases (RECACER)
In 2001, following several high-level health-sector meetings, the countries of the Central American subregion identified the need for structuring and/or strengthening national early warning and rapid-response systems. Thus was created the Central American Network for the Prevention and Control of Emerging and Reemerging Diseases (RECACER). This page serves as a fact sheet on RECACER and provides access to the Network meeting reports.(20/Feb/2003)
In English       HTML(5.2k)  
en español     HTML(5.62k)  

Model for a Clinical Handbook for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Antimicrobial substances are those either produced by microorganisms (antibiotics produced by bacteria, fungi or actinomicetos) or chemically synthesized (sulfa drugs, quinolones) that have the capacity to destroy, impede, or delay the multiplication of others microorganisms. In medical practice, both are called “antibiotics.” Antibiotic therapy is used to treat patients showing symptoms and clinical signs of infection. This guide was produced in Spanish for use in Latin American countries; this page includes a summary in English and access to the full text in Spanish.(31/Dec/2002)
In English       HTML(13.64k)  
en español     HTML(13.98k)  

Informe de la Reunión de los Jefes de Programas de Control de la Tuberculosis (Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, 11-13 septiembre 2002)
Este informe de 95 páginas incluye resúmenes de TB en el mundo y en la Región, una riqueza de datos de los países, e información sobre la MDR, el Fondo Mundial, planes de accion propuestos, y una evaluación epidemiológica y operacional. Las secciones son fáciles de acceder vía bookmarks en el documento.(30/Sep/2002)
en español     HTML(4.36k)   PDF(4193.12k)  

Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus (13 September 2002)
Due to the threatened spread of West Nile virus to the countries of the Region, the Program on Communicable Diseases has summarized some general guidelines as PAHO's recommendations on the surveillance of this disease, based on the proceedings and discussion in the "West Nile Virus Surveillance Workshop" organized by PAHO at CAREC in Trinidad and Tobago from 29 April to 3 May 2002. The guidelines’ objective is to timely detect West Nile virus activity in reservoir populations and vectors in order to institute the appropriate measures in terms of enhanced surveillance, transmission and vector control, as well as mass communication. (PAHO Document OPS/HCP/HCT/221/2002)(13/Sep/2002)
In English       HTML(20.9k)   WORDL(66.05k)   PDF(44.02k)  
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West Nile Virus Fact Sheet
This two-page fact sheet summarizes the basic facts about this emerging infectious disease: where it started, how it is spreading, its reservoirs and vectors, risks to humans, and recommendations for prevention and control. (PAHO document OPS/HCP/HCT/222/2002)(13/Sep/2002)
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Hurrying Toward Disaster?
This article describes how new, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of globalization, population growth and alterations to ecological systems can affect global health, and how we must prepare to combat them. (23/Aug/2002)
In English       Perspectives in Health  
en español     Perspectivas de Salud  

Manual de procedimientos de técnicas para el diagnóstico del dengue
Esta guía de diagnóstico, elaborada conjuntamente por los países centroamericanos y coordinada por el Laboratorio de Virología del Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia del Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua, tiene como principal objetivo estandarizar el diagnóstico de laboratorio de dengue, para que en todos los países se utilicen metodologías parecidas y haya un manual técnico de orientación para utilizar al momento de realizar una técnica especifica en el laboratorio. (72 páginas, PDF)(15/Aug/2002)
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Annual Regional Meeting of Countries Participating in the Monitoring/Surveillance Network on Resistance to Antibiotics (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 17-19 April 2002)
As part of the knowledge necessary to combat the development of antimicrobial resistance, since 1997 20 countries in the Region have formed a network that reports annually on the percentages of resistance to enteric bacterias. Since 2000, surveillance has expanded to other species found in communities and in hospitals. This page offers an executive summary and a link to the full-text document in Spanish containing the country reports.(19/Apr/2002)
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First Technical Coordination Meeting of the Amazonian Network for Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA) and the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) (Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 19-20 March 2002)
This meeting was attended by representatives from PAHO, WHO, USAID and CDC and the eight Amazon countries that make up the surveillance network and participate in the AMI project. This page offers the full-text conference report as well as links to other relevant documentation.(31/Mar/2002)
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2nd Joint Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Diseases in the Amazon and Southern Cone Regions (Atlanta, 23-24 March 2002)
Rapidly-spreading diseases from the group known as emerging infectious diseases require surveillance systems endowed with great sensibility allowing for immediate action to impede outbreak propogation or to control epidemics. In this context, a new paradigm of global cooperation has been established, where the objective is to reach common goals, work as a team, maintain a constant channel of communication, and know how to detect abnormalities.
This page offers PDF access to the full-text conference report, with country reports and disease recommendations organized separately.(24/Mar/2002)
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Executive Report: Subregional Meeting of the Central American Network for the Prevention and Control of Emerging and Reemerging Diseases (RECACER) (Costa Rica, 21–22 February 2002)
This five-page report provides the 2002 update on the RECACER Network. The objectives of this second meeting were to share advancements made by the National Technical Groups for national and subregional capacity-building in the area of the surveillance, prevention and control of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases; to review the activities and results of actions developed by the subregional component of the Post-Mitch project insofar as it relates to emerging and reemerging diseases; and to formulate a follow-up agenda for the RECACER Network Coordinating Committee.(22/Feb/2002)
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Grupo de Trabajo OPS para Consulta en Planificación, Operativa, Estrategia y Evaluación de Etapas Avanzadas del Control Antivectorial en Enfermedad de Chagas (Montevideo, Uruguay, 13-14 noviembre 2001)
Para un programa nacional de control de Chagas, un estado avanzado de control, es aquel donde se ha logrado esta meta de interrupción. Hoy esta situación es una realidad en la totalidad o en áreas parciales de su territorio para cuatro países de la Iniciativa Chagas del Cono Sur: Uruguay (1997), Chile (1999), Brasil (2000) y Argentina (2001). Es necesario entonces preparar a los Programas Nacionales de Chagas para posicionarse y actuar en escenarios de baja prevalencia, con nula ó mínima transmisión, creando condiciones de sustentabilidad adecuada, eficaz, eficiente y oportuna, a los efectos de desarrollar la imprescindible vigilancia. Esta página brinda acceso a la colección de doce trabajos (introducción, 10 artículos, recomendaciones), cada uno en archivo PDF.(14/Nov/2001)
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4th Meeting of the Emerging Disease Surveillance Network of the Southern Cone (Asunción, Paraguay, 30 May—1 June 2001)
The movement of people throughpout the world currently constitutes an important risk factor for diseases spreading from one place to another. It requires both organization and communication to confront the ever-growing threat of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (EID)in the Region. The objectives of this meeting were to renew contacts and maintain communication among laboratories, generate minimal information, identify areas in need of strengthening, plan the future and incorporate other illnesses or problems that require attention or prioritization, and design prevention and control strategies. This page offers access to the recommendations as well as the full-text conference report in PDF, with instant access to individual country and disease data.(1/Jun/2001)
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Annual Regional Meeting of Countries Participating in the Network for Monitoring/Surveillance of Resistance to Antibiotics (Asunción, Paraguay, 31 January–February 2001)
This HTML page offers the executive summary of and recommendations from the conference in English, with a link to the Spanish page containing the full-text document (138 pages, in PDF) with glossary, country data, performance and laboratory evaluations, quality-control systems, list of participants, bibliography, etc.(28/Feb/2001)
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¡Los antibióticos combaten las bacterias! Pero algunas bacterias se están haciendo resistentes ...
Este folleto en colores, en forma imprimible, se presta para distribución a través de campañas de educación pública sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana, para distribución a la gente en lenguage común y fácil de entender.(1/Jan/2001)
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Farmacorresistencia a los Antimicrobianos: Panorama regional, datos por microorganismo y país
La resistencia antimicrobiana es un importante problema de salud pública que afecta a la mayoría de los países del mundo. El incremento del uso de antibióticos, su mal uso y otros factores han dado lugar en las últimas décadas a la emergencia de resistencia antimicrobiana entre diversos microorganismos. Los países de la Región de las Américas comparten la preocupación por este tema.(13/Dec/2000)
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Roll Back Malaria in Meso America: Report of the Meeting Held in the Dominican Republic with the Participation of Central American Countries, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic (San Pedro de Macorís, 20-24 November 2000)
The main themes of this meeting were to introduce the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative in Meso America, review the current malaria situation and prepare country work plans. This page contains access to the full-text technical report, including country data and plans organized separately by country, 16 color maps and graphs, subregional and national conclusions and recommendations, and the list of participants (all downloadable in PDF).(24/Nov/2000)
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Cooperative Agreement to the Pan American Health Organization to initiate the Post Hurricane Reconstruction of the Public Healthcare System in Central America
The following project proposal has been prepared in response to the United States Department of Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Program Announcement 00021: Post Hurricane Reconstruction of the Public Health-Care System in Central America and the Caribbean. The proposal is aimed at providing assistance to rebuild or strengthen national and subregional health systems which will facilitate prevention and control of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases. (1/Oct/2000)
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The Roll Back Malaria Initiative in the Rainforest Region of South America (Cartagena, Colombia, August 2000)
Nine countries attended this meeting: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. The objectives of the meeting were (1) to evaluate and to discuss the implementation of Roll Back Malaria (RBM) action plans; (2) discuss the establishment of national technical support groups through linkage between national researchers and malaria control staff; and (3) establish and reinforce RBM inter-country co-operative programs. This page offers access to the full-text conference report, with instant access to individual country reports and chapters, as well as epidemiological maps. (31/Aug/2000)
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Report: Third Meeting of the Surveillance Networks for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Amazon and Southern Cone Regions--Atlanta, Georgia,15-16 July 2000
The aim of this meeting was to promote the enhancement of emerging infectious diseases (EID) surveillance networks of the Amazon and Southern Cone (SC) regions. Participants represented their respective countries’ epidemiology and laboratory units of their disease surveillance system--thus promoting coordination and collaboration among them. The integration of epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis is critical for the strengthening of each region’s disease surveillance network. For the first time, a representative from the Caribbean Epidemiology Center (CAREC) attended a meeting of this kind. This page offers access to the Executive Summary and full-text conference report.(15/Jul/2000)
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WHO Report on Infectious Diseases: Overcoming Microbial Resistance
On this radio page put out by WHO for broadcasting purposes are a wide-ranging selection of authoritative opinions about the WHO Report on Infectious Diseases "Overcoming Microbial Resistance".(16/Jun/2000)
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Drains & You: A Manual for Drainage Maintenance Workers
This manual is useful not only for drainage workers engaged in cleaning and repairing secondary drains, working for ministries and local governments, but also for the general public in making them aware of the role drains play in public health and safety. In the latter sense, it serves as a social-communication tool to raise community awareness of the general public of domestic-sanitation issues and their effect on public health. This page offers the entire manual for field use, with chapters downloadable in PDF.(30/Mar/2000)
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Second Meeting of a Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Southern Cone Region (Brasilia, Brazil, 11-13 May 1999)
The goal of this second meeting was to continue efforts to establish a functional network of laboratories within the greater Southern Cone Region--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay--capable to obtain accurate, high-quality laboratory results on new, emerging and re-emerging infections found in the Region.(13/May/1999)
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Second Meeting to Establish a Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Amazon Region (Tarapoto, Peru, 14-16 April 1999)
The objectives of this second meeting were as follows: to continue efforts to create a functional network of laboratories in the greater Amazon Region, including Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela; strengthen the capability to obtain accurate, high-quality surveillance results on EID; review and/or modify the plans prepared during the first meeting held in Manaus in 1998; describe the current status of EID in the countries; and discuss ongoing surveillance activities as well as possibilities for cooperation among participating countries and international reference laboratories. This page offers the executive summary and access to the 58-page report.(14/Apr/1999)
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Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Americas: Strategic Plan for Surveillance of Resistance to Antibiotics
In light of the threat to public health posed by the growing problem of drug resistance, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) convened an expert group meeting, which was held in Asunción, Paraguay, on 27-29 January 1999 (see List of Participants in Annex 6). The participants drafted a three-year program for addressing this problem in the Region. The program's resources will support interventions aimed at the control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance in the following countries: Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. The document is available in MS Word (243 KB) and pdf (193 KB). (27/Jan/1999)
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Recomendaciones de la Conferencia Panamericana de Resistencia Antimicrobiana en las Américas (Caraballeda, Venezuela, 2-4 noviembre 1998)
Este documento contiene recomendaciones sobre: Educación sobre el uso apropiado de antibióticos para el profesional de la salud; Desarrollo de una red panamericana de vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos; Control de calidad y formas de lograr resultados de laboratorio coherentes y comparables; Uso clínico y abuso de antibióticos. (2/Nov/1998)
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WHA51.17: Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases: Antimicrobial Resistance
In 1998, the 51st World Health Assembly adopted this resolution, setting forth the WHO global mandate for the fight against resistance to antibiotics as well as for adopting new approaches for dealing with emerging diseases. PAHO has adopted this mandate for the Americas.(16/May/1998)
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Meeting to Establish a Network of Laboratories for the Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Southern Cone Region: Buenos Aires, Argentina, 17-19 April 1998
The main goal of the meeting was to create a functional network of laboratories within the greater Southern Cone Region--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay--capable of obtaining accurate, high-quality laboratory results on new, emerging and re-emerging infections found in the Region. This page summarizes the objectives and conclusions of the meeting and provides access to the full-text conference report.(17/Apr/1998)
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Final Report: Meeting to Establish a Network of Laboratories for the Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Amazon Region (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 9-11 February 1998)
The basic aim of this meeting was to create a functional network of laboratories within the greater Amazon Region, able to obtain accurate, high-quality laboratory results on new, emerging and reemerging infections found in the Region. This page offers access to a summary as well as the full-text conference report in PDF.(11/Feb/1998)
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Método para el trampeo y muestreo de pequeños mamíferos para estudios virológicos
Las enfermedades infecciosas siguen siendo la causa principal de defunción entre los humanos en todo el mundo, a pesar de los grandes avances médicos logrados durante la segunda mitad del siglo veinte. Muchas enfermedades infecciosas han sido reconocidas como amenazas para la salud humana; otras, las "emergentes", se han identificado solo recientemente. Un número significativo de estas enfermedades se clasifica como zoonosis, debido a que los animales constituyen su reservorio natural.(1/Feb/1998)
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Meeting of the Task Force on Surveillance for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (Toronto, 13-14 November 1996)
This document describes the meeting held to examine the conditions for surveillance, response and prevention of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and to define priorities for technical cooperation. Priority areas for this were identified whereby stressing the need of implementing adequate surveillance systems to monitor public health problems. Anti-microbial drug resistance was considered one of the most alarming threats among other problems presented.(30/Oct/1996)
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