Influenza (General Documents)

For more information, visit the Influenza Page of the Disease Prevention and Control Area of the Pan American Health Organization.

   Technical Documents


Technical Documents

The Global Influenza Surveillance Network
Every year more than 250 million doses of influenza vaccine are produced that help to protect the world's population against influenza infections. For over 50 years the process by which an effective vaccine is developed and manufactured has relied on the international cooperation of a wide range of public health partners brought together under the coordination of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Global Influenza Surveillance Network. This fact sheet provides more details.(31/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(305.94k)  
en español     PDF(295.13k)  
en Français    PDF   

Infection Control Strategies for Specific Procedures in Health-Care Facilities: Epidemic-prone and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases, A Quick Reference Guide
This document is addressed to infection control professionals, occupational health specialists and other professionals involved in patient care in health-care facilities. It is designed to provide quick reference guidance on infection prevention and control to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care.(20/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(237.06k)  
en español     PDF(158.05k)  

CD48/INF/3 - Avian Influenza and Influenza Pandemic Preparedness
CD48/INF/3 - Avian Influenza and Influenza Pandemic Preparedness(16/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(31.64k)  
en español     PDF(35.22k)  

Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Resistance to Oseltamivir--2008 Influenza Season, Southern Hemisphere
During weeks 26–27 (15-28 June), the level of overall influenza activity in the world increased reflecting the situation in southern hemisphere. However, influenza A (H1N1)virus circulation remains generally low in all countries reporting influenza activity at this time. WHO has received several reports from National Influenza Centres in the southern hemisphere regarding influenza A (H1N1)virus resistance to oseltamivir. This documents provides a summary plus summary data tables.(18/Jul/2008)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(118.61k)  

RIMSA 15: Inter-American Meeting at Ministerial Level on Health and Agriculture (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11–12 June 2008)
Comprehensive new site: PAHO will once again hold its biennial meeting where ministers of health and agriculture discuss common concerns related to animal diseases, diseases transmitted to human by animals, and agricultural/livestock production and food safety. This year's theme is Agriculture and Health: Alliance for Equity and Rural Development in the Americas.(19/May/2008)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

RIMSA 14: Index of Documents
Index of documents presented at RIMSA 14.(18/May/2008)
In English       HTML(7.87k)  
en español     HTML(8.39k)  
en Français    HTML(7.65k)  
em Português HTML(7.51k)  

National Pandemic Contingency Plan Self-Assessment Template
PAHO has developed this Excel template for use in the countries for them to evaluate their own capacity to face a pandemic: the National Influenza Pandemic Preparedness: Self-Assessment, Second Round, National Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plans / NIPPPs.(31/Dec/2007)
In English       Excel  
en español     Excel  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Recommendations and Laboratory Procedures for Detection of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Specimens from Suspected Human Cases
Procedures proposed in this document are intended for testing specimens from patients with suspected avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. It is intended for use by National Influenza Centers (NICs; members of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network) during phases of interpandemic and pandemic alert.(31/Aug/2007)
In English       Recommendations and Laboratory Procedures - WHO  
en español     PDF(409.54k)  

Clinical Management of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus
This WHO site provides the full text of the above guidelines for treating avian flu in human cases, in addition to the WHO H5N1 Clinical Case Summary Form and the Supplementary WHO H5N1 Clinical Case Data.(15/Aug/2007)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(273.74k)  
en Français    OMS  

CSP27/8--Avian Flu and Pandemic Influenza: Progress Report
Item 4.4 on the Agenda of the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference, Washington D.C., 1-5 October 2007.(27/Jul/2007)
In English       PDF(145.55k)  
en español     CSP27/08  
en Français    CSP27/8  
em Português CSP27/8  

Epidemic-prone & pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases: Infection prevention & control in health-care facilities, Summary guidance
This 44-page handbook provides advice for health-care workers on infection control of acute respiratory diseases (ARDs): reporting and isolating suspected cases; applying standard precautions, standard and droplet precautions, contact and droplet precautions, airborne precautions, and ventilating with regard to influenza-like illness (ILI) and viral, bacterial, and novel ARDs (e.g. SARS).(30/Jun/2007)
In English       PDF(2793.65k)  
en español     PDF(2493.12k)  

Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic- and Pandemic-Prone Acute Respiratory Diseases in Health Care: WHO Interim Guidelines
The purpose of this document is to provide infection control guidance to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care, with emphasis on acute respiratory diseases that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern as defined in the International Health Regulations (2005; Annex 1). Managers of health-care facilities may also consider using this guidance to assist them in preparation for epidemics and pandemics. It is intended for use by government planners, healthcare facility administrators, infection control professionals, occupational health specialists, other professionals involved in patient care, and direct care providers.(29/Jun/2007)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(1881.78k)  

PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response: Working to Deal with Outbreaks in the Americas
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response, mainly responsible for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, disease outbreak management, implementation of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]), assessment of national surveillance capacity, and related issues.(13/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(3.53k)  
en español     HTML(3.64k)  

The PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases and its activities to support the Member States in their fight against emerging viral infections of epidemic character.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(2.47k)  
en español     HTML(2.68k)  

The Role of National Influenza Centres (NICs) during Interpandemic, Pandemic Alert and Pandemic Periods
National Influenza Centres (NICs) are the backbone of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), working to protect global public health by updating seasonal influenza vaccine compositions and functioning as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. As a result, it has contributed greatly to the understanding of influenza epidemiology and supporting WHO recommendations for surveillance and vaccine preparation.(31/May/2007)
In English       The Role of National Influenza Centres (NICs)-WHO  
en español     PDF(102.3k)  

WHA60.28--Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits
This resolution of the 60th World Health Assembly en 2007 constitutes the WHO global mandate for pandemic and avian influenza, which has been adopted by PAHO for the Americas.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.28  
en español     WHA60.28  
en Français    WHA60.28  

Vth Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Amazon Countries
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.(24/Jan/2006)
In English       HTML(18.76k)  
en español     HTML(18.69k)   PDF(3080.23k)  

Brasilia Declaration
The ministers and the representatives of ministers of agriculture and health, the presidents and the representatives of producer associations, industry, and other entities representing the poultry production chain, and the representatives of international organizations in attendance at the Hemispheric Conference on Avian Influenza, expressed their commitment in this multilateral agreement at the Hemispheric Conference on the Surveillance and Prevention of Avian Influenza in Brasilia, Brazil, on 2 December 2005. Full conference proceedings(2/Dec/2005)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

A58/62: Seventh Report of Committee A
This report from the 58th World Health Assembly in 2005 deals with (1) antimicrobial resistance as a threat to global health security, and its containment; and (2) Strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness and response, and enhancing laboratory biosafety. It set forth the WHO global mandate in this regard and has been adopted by PAHO for the Americas.(25/May/2005)
In English       A58/62  
en español     A58/62  
en Français    A58/62  

VIth Meeting of the Southern Cone Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 4–5 March 2005)
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.(5/Mar/2005)
In English       HTML(28.06k)  
en español     HTML(30.9k)   PDF(2230.19k)  

EB115.R16: Strengthening Pandemic-Influenza Preparedness and Response
This report makes recommendations that led to the resolutions made in the 2005 World Health Assembly, which set forth the WHO global mandate for pandemic influenza preparedness and response and was subsequently adopted by PAHO for the Americas.(24/Jan/2005)
In English       EB115.R16  
en español     EB115.R16  
en Français    EB115.R16  

PAHO-CDC Generic Proposal for Influenza Surveillance
Given the need to expand influenza surveillance, PAHO--in collaboration with CDC-- developed a new Generic Protocol for Influenza Surveillance (GPIS). The GPIS seeks to harmonize influenza surveillance throughout the Region and ensure that any single case of influenza caused by a new viral subtype be detected, as required by the IHR 2005.(15/Dec/2004)
In English       HTML(3.11k)   PDF(4691.5k)  
en español     HTML(3.42k)   PDF(4950.53k)  

Regional Core Health Data System - Indicators Glossary
Definition, technical note, type, measure units, categories, and subcategories for each indicator in the Regional Core Health Data System(26/Oct/2004)
In English       HTML(0.57k)  
en español     HTML(0.6k)  

CD45.R8: Disaster Preparedness and Response
This report from the PAHO Directing Council lays forth the Organization's mandate for emergency and disaster preparedness and response in hospitals, clinics, and primary-care facilities in the Americas.(1/Oct/2004)
In English       CD45.R8  
en español     CD45.R8  
en Français    CD45.R8  
em Português CD45.R8  

Third Joint Meeting of the Networks for Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 26-28 February 2004)
The objectives of this yearly meeting were (a) to present and discuss subregional activities carried out by the EID surveillance networks; and (2) to identify commitments and activities for the period 2004/2005, taking into account the guidelines of the plans of action of each one of them. This page provides the executive summary and access to the 124-page report in PDF, with links to the individual chapters.(28/Feb/2004)
In English       HTML(14.42k)  
en español     HTML(16.37k)   PDF(4489.77k)  

CD44.R8--Influenza Pandemic: Preparation in the Hemisphere
This resolution of the 44th PAHO Directing Council sets forth the PAHO mandate for dealing with the possibility of an influenza pandemic.(26/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R8  
en español     CD44.R8  
en Français    CD44.R8  
em Português CD44.R8  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Hurrying Toward Disaster?
This article describes how new, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of globalization, population growth and alterations to ecological systems can affect global health, and how we must prepare to combat them. (23/Aug/2002)
In English       Perspectives in Health  
en español     Perspectivas de Salud  

4th Meeting of the Emerging Disease Surveillance Network of the Southern Cone (Asunción, Paraguay, 30 May—1 June 2001)
The movement of people throughpout the world currently constitutes an important risk factor for diseases spreading from one place to another. It requires both organization and communication to confront the ever-growing threat of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (EID)in the Region. The objectives of this meeting were to renew contacts and maintain communication among laboratories, generate minimal information, identify areas in need of strengthening, plan the future and incorporate other illnesses or problems that require attention or prioritization, and design prevention and control strategies. This page offers access to the recommendations as well as the full-text conference report in PDF, with instant access to individual country and disease data.(1/Jun/2001)
In English       HTML(8.28k)  
en español     HTML(11.31k)  

Second Meeting of a Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) in the Southern Cone Region (Brasilia, Brazil, 11-13 May 1999)
The goal of this second meeting was to continue efforts to establish a functional network of laboratories within the greater Southern Cone Region--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay--capable to obtain accurate, high-quality laboratory results on new, emerging and re-emerging infections found in the Region.(13/May/1999)
In English       HTML(8.1k)  
en español     HTML(8.83k)