Viral diseases

   Technical Documents


Technical Documents

2008: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2008 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report with subregional subtotals and information on serotypes. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.(31/Dec/2008)
In English       HTML(53.9k)   PDF(52.59k)  

Sterilization Manual for Health Centers
The purpose of this manual is to inform health workers on the protocols and simple procedures that have been developed to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The guidelines included in this handbook show which steps to follow in cleaning, preparing, sterilizing, storing, and transporting hospital equipment so as to guarantee sterile materials--awareness of which is crucial in providing patients with safe health care. This page provides a summary and access to the full text in Spanish.(31/Dec/2008)
In English       HTML(5.93k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(3124.63k)  

The Global Influenza Surveillance Network
Every year more than 250 million doses of influenza vaccine are produced that help to protect the world's population against influenza infections. For over 50 years the process by which an effective vaccine is developed and manufactured has relied on the international cooperation of a wide range of public health partners brought together under the coordination of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Global Influenza Surveillance Network. This fact sheet provides more details.(31/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(305.94k)  
en español     PDF(295.13k)  
en Français    PDF   

Infection Control Strategies for Specific Procedures in Health-Care Facilities: Epidemic-prone and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases, A Quick Reference Guide
This document is addressed to infection control professionals, occupational health specialists and other professionals involved in patient care in health-care facilities. It is designed to provide quick reference guidance on infection prevention and control to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care.(20/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(237.06k)  
en español     PDF(158.05k)  

Análisis costo-beneficio del control de vectores en la transmisión potencial de dengue
Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que el control vectorial, incluyendo la fumigación para mosquitos adultos, debe evaluarse en situaciones de alto riesgo de transmisión como una alternativa costo-benéfica en países no endémicos. (Rev Panam Salud Publica/Pan Am J Public Health 24(2), 2008) (31/Aug/2008)
en Français    Texto completo  

CD48/INF/3 - Avian Influenza and Influenza Pandemic Preparedness
CD48/INF/3 - Avian Influenza and Influenza Pandemic Preparedness(16/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(31.64k)  
en español     PDF(35.22k)  

Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Resistance to Oseltamivir--2008 Influenza Season, Southern Hemisphere
During weeks 26–27 (15-28 June), the level of overall influenza activity in the world increased reflecting the situation in southern hemisphere. However, influenza A (H1N1)virus circulation remains generally low in all countries reporting influenza activity at this time. WHO has received several reports from National Influenza Centres in the southern hemisphere regarding influenza A (H1N1)virus resistance to oseltamivir. This documents provides a summary plus summary data tables.(18/Jul/2008)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(118.61k)  

International Health Regulations (IHR)
The International Health Regulations are an international legal instrument that covers measures for preventing the transnational spread of infectious diseases. The newly adopted IHR (2005) has as purpose and scope “to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade”. This page provides a detailed description and information on progress of its implementation, plus relevant links.(24/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(6.76k)  
en español     HTML(17.04k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

RIMSA 15: Inter-American Meeting at Ministerial Level on Health and Agriculture (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11–12 June 2008)
Comprehensive new site: PAHO will once again hold its biennial meeting where ministers of health and agriculture discuss common concerns related to animal diseases, diseases transmitted to human by animals, and agricultural/livestock production and food safety. This year's theme is Agriculture and Health: Alliance for Equity and Rural Development in the Americas.(19/May/2008)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

2007: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2007 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report with subregional subtotals and information on serotypes. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.(5/Mar/2008)
In English       HTML(39.69k)   PDF(51.37k)  

Yellow Fever: Number of Cases and Deaths, 1960–2007
This Excel PDF data table provides quantitative data on the number of cases of and deaths from yellow fever in selected endemic countries of the Americas.(15/Jan/2008)
In English       PDF(30.98k)  
en español     PDF(43.75k)  

National Pandemic Contingency Plan Self-Assessment Template
PAHO has developed this Excel template for use in the countries for them to evaluate their own capacity to face a pandemic: the National Influenza Pandemic Preparedness: Self-Assessment, Second Round, National Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plans / NIPPPs.(31/Dec/2007)
In English       Excel  
en español     Excel  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Recommendations and Laboratory Procedures for Detection of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Specimens from Suspected Human Cases
Procedures proposed in this document are intended for testing specimens from patients with suspected avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. It is intended for use by National Influenza Centers (NICs; members of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network) during phases of interpandemic and pandemic alert.(31/Aug/2007)
In English       Recommendations and Laboratory Procedures - WHO  
en español     PDF(409.54k)  

Clinical Management of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus
This WHO site provides the full text of the above guidelines for treating avian flu in human cases, in addition to the WHO H5N1 Clinical Case Summary Form and the Supplementary WHO H5N1 Clinical Case Data.(15/Aug/2007)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(273.74k)  
en Français    OMS  

CSP27/8--Avian Flu and Pandemic Influenza: Progress Report
Item 4.4 on the Agenda of the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference, Washington D.C., 1-5 October 2007.(27/Jul/2007)
In English       PDF(145.55k)  
en español     CSP27/08  
en Français    CSP27/8  
em Português CSP27/8  

Epidemic-prone & pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases: Infection prevention & control in health-care facilities, Summary guidance
This 44-page handbook provides advice for health-care workers on infection control of acute respiratory diseases (ARDs): reporting and isolating suspected cases; applying standard precautions, standard and droplet precautions, contact and droplet precautions, airborne precautions, and ventilating with regard to influenza-like illness (ILI) and viral, bacterial, and novel ARDs (e.g. SARS).(30/Jun/2007)
In English       PDF(2793.65k)  
en español     PDF(2493.12k)  

Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic- and Pandemic-Prone Acute Respiratory Diseases in Health Care: WHO Interim Guidelines
The purpose of this document is to provide infection control guidance to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care, with emphasis on acute respiratory diseases that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern as defined in the International Health Regulations (2005; Annex 1). Managers of health-care facilities may also consider using this guidance to assist them in preparation for epidemics and pandemics. It is intended for use by government planners, healthcare facility administrators, infection control professionals, occupational health specialists, other professionals involved in patient care, and direct care providers.(29/Jun/2007)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(1881.78k)  

PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response: Working to Deal with Outbreaks in the Americas
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response, mainly responsible for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, disease outbreak management, implementation of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]), assessment of national surveillance capacity, and related issues.(13/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(3.53k)  
en español     HTML(3.64k)  

The PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases and its activities to support the Member States in their fight against emerging viral infections of epidemic character.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(2.47k)  
en español     HTML(2.68k)  

The Role of National Influenza Centres (NICs) during Interpandemic, Pandemic Alert and Pandemic Periods
National Influenza Centres (NICs) are the backbone of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), working to protect global public health by updating seasonal influenza vaccine compositions and functioning as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. As a result, it has contributed greatly to the understanding of influenza epidemiology and supporting WHO recommendations for surveillance and vaccine preparation.(31/May/2007)
In English       The Role of National Influenza Centres (NICs)-WHO  
en español     PDF(102.3k)  

WHA60.28--Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits
This resolution of the 60th World Health Assembly en 2007 constitutes the WHO global mandate for pandemic and avian influenza, which has been adopted by PAHO for the Americas.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.28  
en español     WHA60.28  
en Français    WHA60.28  

Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia (CNDR), Departamento de Virología, Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua
Esta hoja informativa brinda información sobre el Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia (CNDR) de Nicaragua y sobre el Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional responsable por diagnosticar casos de dengue. El CDNR es uno de los Centros Colaboradores de la OPS/OMS(7/Mar/2007)
en español     PDF(146.46k)  

Rabies Home: About Rabies; Frequently Asked Questions, the Rabies Virus, Natural History, Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention & Control, Bats & Rabies, Kids Rabies Home Page, References, Resources, Links)
This basic resource page from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States offers provides basic information on rabies in the areas shown above. Rabies is a fatal infectious viral disease that affects the nervous system of humans and other mammals. People get rabies from the bite of an animal with rabies (a rabid animal). Any wild mammal, like a raccoon, skunk, fox, coyote, or bat, can have rabies and transmit it to people. It is also possible, but quite rare, that people may get rabies if infectious material from a rabid animal, such as saliva, gets directly into their eyes, nose, mouth, or a wound. However, people can be successfully after being bitten by an animal that may have rabies. Because rabies is a fatal disease (25/Oct/2006)
In English       CDC  
en español     CDC  

Rabies (WHO Fact Sheet No. 99)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on rabies, a zoonotic viral disease which infects domestic and wild animals. It is transmitted to other animals and humans through close contact with saliva from infected animals (i.e. bites, scratches, licks on broken skin and mucous membranes). Once symptoms of the disease develop, rabies is fatal to both animals and humans. The first symptoms of rabies are usually non-specific and suggest involvement of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and/or central nervous systems. In the acute stage, signs of hyperactivity (furious rabies) or paralysis (dumb rabies) predominate. In both furious and dumb rabies, paralysis eventually progresses to complete paralysis followed by coma and death in all cases, usually due to respiratory failure. Without intensive care, death occurs during the first seven days of illness. Prevention of human rabies must be a community effort involving both veterinary and public health officials. Rabies elimination programmes focused mainly on mass vaccination of dogs are largely justified by the future savings of discontinuing prevention programmes. However, until canine rabies is eliminated or at least well controlled, safer and more economical post-exposure treatments for humans are a desirable alternative to the use of nerve tissue vaccines.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (WHO Fact Sheet No. 117)
This official fact sheet offers basic information of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection which in recent years has become a major international public health concern. It is found in tropical and subtropical regions, predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas. Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a potentially lethal complication, was first recognized in the 1950s during the dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand, but today DHF affects most Asian countries and has become a leading cause of hospitalisation and death among children in several of them. Integrated prevention and control efforts are underway in the Region. (20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Yellow Fever (WHO Fact Sheet No. 100)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on the disease. Yellow fever is a viral disease that has caused large epidemics in the Americas. It can be recognized from historic texts stretching back 400 years. Infection causes a wide spectrum of disease, from mild symptoms to severe illness and death. The "yellow" in the name is explained by the jaundice that affects some patients. Although an effective vaccine has been available for 60 years, the number of people infected over the last two decades has increased and has become urbanized, becoming once again a serious public-health issue again. (20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.(20/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.91k)  

A Guide to Healthy Food Markets
With over half of the world’s population now living in urban areas, food markets have become important sources of affordable food for many millions of people. At the same time, however, such markets have been associated with major outbreaks of diseases, including cholera, SARS and avian influenza. This link goes to the full-text 42-page guide on the WHO website.(18/Apr/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  

CAREC Surveillance Report
PAHO's Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) compiles epidemiological data on influenza activity in the English-speaking Caribbean, which it publishes on a regular basis in the CAREC Surveillance Report (CSR). CSR also publishes similar information on other diseases.(4/Apr/2006)
In English       CAREC/CSR  
en español     CAREC/CSR  

Influenza (WHO Fact Sheet No. 211)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on influenza (flu, grippe), a respiratory disease caused by a virus that attacks mainly the upper respiratory tract--the nose, throat, and bronchi and rarely also the lungs. Sections are provided entitled Overview, the Virus, Pandemic Influenza, Transmission, Diagnosis, Prevention: Influenza Vaccines, Treatment and Prophylaxis: Antiviral Agents, and Related Links.(3/Apr/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Advice on Use of Oseltamivir
The antiviral drug Oseltamivir(Tamiflu®) is recommended for use for both treatment and prophylaxis (prevention) of influenza. This document offers WHO's recommendations on its use.(17/Mar/2006)
In English       WHO  

Situation Updates— Avian Influenza
This link provides access to all outbreak notices on avian influenza from the archives of the WHO Disease Outbreak News, starting with the newest item. (28/Feb/2006)
In English       WHO/EPR  
en español     OMS/EPR  
en Français    OMS/EPR  

Avian Influenza ('Bird Flu')--Fact Sheet
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on avian flu, an infectious respiratory disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus. The disease occurs worldwide. While all birds are thought to be susceptible to infection with avian influenza viruses, many wild bird species carry these viruses with no apparent signs of harm.(24/Jan/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Vth Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Amazon Countries
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.(24/Jan/2006)
In English       HTML(18.76k)  
en español     HTML(18.69k)   PDF(3080.23k)  

WHO Guidance on Public Health Measures in Countries Experiencing Their First Outbreaks of H5N1 Avian Influenza
Outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry, when caused by highly pathogenic viruses of the H5 or H7 subtypes, are of great concern for the agricultural sector and can have considerable economic consequences. Such outbreaks are also of concern for human health. This guidance offered by WHO is general and intended for adaptation to specific situations, in line with national health and veterinary polices.(3/Jan/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     HTML(13.4k)   PDF(40.6k)  
em Português OPAS  

Brasilia Declaration
The ministers and the representatives of ministers of agriculture and health, the presidents and the representatives of producer associations, industry, and other entities representing the poultry production chain, and the representatives of international organizations in attendance at the Hemispheric Conference on Avian Influenza, expressed their commitment in this multilateral agreement at the Hemispheric Conference on the Surveillance and Prevention of Avian Influenza in Brasilia, Brazil, on 2 December 2005. Full conference proceedings(2/Dec/2005)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

WHO recommendations relating to travellers coming from and going to countries experiencing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza
These recommendations are in line with phase 3 in the WHO 6-phase scale of pandemic alert: human infections with a novel influenza virus subtype are occurring, but the virus does not spread efficiently and sustainably among humans. These recommendations may change according to the change in the epidemiological situation and related risk assessments.(30/Nov/2005)
In English       WHO  
en español     HTML(4.68k)  

Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Poultry and in Humans: Food Safety Implications
This fact sheet provides useful information on the ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in poultry in Asia and, more recently, in Europe, that have raised concerns about the source of infection and the risk to humans from various exposures.(4/Nov/2005)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  
en Français   
OMS  

Hemispheric Conference on the Surveillance and Prevention of Avian Influenza (Brasília, Brazil, 30 November– 2 December 2005)
The objectives of this conference, co-sponsored by PANAFTOSA and the Ministry of Agriculture of Brazil, are as follows: Review, analysis, and dissemination of the global and Hemispheric knowledge of Avian Influenza (AI) and the risk of pandemic for humans, in order to forge a regional alliance and to discuss the bases of a public multisectoral and private plan, for surveillance and prevention of Influenza Avian in the Americas. This page is Portuguese but offers a link by which to register and the complete conference program in English.(28/Oct/2005)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

Influenza: Technical Module (Peru)
This technical document in Spanish, put together by the General Office of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health of Peru and the National Institute of Health of Peru offers up-to-date information in the form of a manual on influenza for doctors and laboratory technicians working in the country.(19/Oct/2005)
In English       Handbook in Spanish  
en español     Módulo técnico  

Summary of Influenza Activity, September 2004 - August 2005 (Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER): Vol. 80, No. 41, pp. 353–360)
This article summarizes influenza activity worldwide over the period in question and also contains a data table on the extent and type of influenza activity worldwide confirmed by virus isolation, September 2004–August 2005.(14/Oct/2005)
In English       WHO/WER  
en Français    OMS/REH  

PAHO Strategic and Operational Plan for Responding to Pandemic Influenza (draft, September 23, 2005)
WHO has planned a strategic plan describing activities for influenza preparedness planning to prepare the world for the next influenza pandemic and mitigate its impact once international spread has begun. The PAHO Strategic Plan operates within this framework to direct technical-cooperation activities to be carried out to prepare the countries of the Region for an influenza pandemic.(23/Sep/2005)
In English       PDF(1208.91k)  

WHO Guidelines on the Use of Vaccines and Antivirals during Influenza Pandemics
This document provides guidance to health policy-makers and national authorities on planning principles and options for the prioritization of vaccine and antiviral use during an influenza pandemic. It includes recommendations on actions that can improve future supply for the many countries that currently have no national vaccine or antiviral production. The link below provides access to the WHO abstract and full text.(9/Aug/2005)
In English       WHO/CSR  
en español     HTML(8.09k)   PDF(583.06k)  

Workshop on the Epidemiology and Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Diseases (Decatur, Georgia, USA, 9–13 May 2005)
The objectives of this meeting were (1) to discuss activities on the epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza and analyze the subject of pandemic influenza, as well as present basic and advanced methods of influenza prevention and control; and (2) to find out the degree of progress made in the countries and coordinate development of National Preparedness Plans for a possible influenza pandemic, and to provide tools to assist in the planning process and discuss vaccines and antivirals as prevention and control methods, with a view to a possible pandemic. This page offers the executive summary and access to other conference documentation in Spanish. (13/May/2005)
In English       HTML(11.5k)  
en español     HTML(11.45k)  

VIth Meeting of the Southern Cone Surveillance Network for Emerging Infectious Diseases (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 4–5 March 2005)
This yearly meeting was sponsored by PAHO and three US government agencies: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Agency for International Development (USAID). This page offers a summary on compliance with the past year's recommendations and the recommendations made at the meeting, as well as access to the final report in Spanish.(5/Mar/2005)
In English       HTML(28.06k)  
en español     HTML(30.9k)   PDF(2230.19k)  

EB115.R16: Strengthening Pandemic-Influenza Preparedness and Response
This report makes recommendations that led to the resolutions made in the 2005 World Health Assembly, which set forth the WHO global mandate for pandemic influenza preparedness and response and was subsequently adopted by PAHO for the Americas.(24/Jan/2005)
In English       EB115.R16  
en español     EB115.R16  
en Français    EB115.R16  

CD45.R8: Disaster Preparedness and Response
This report from the PAHO Directing Council lays forth the Organization's mandate for emergency and disaster preparedness and response in hospitals, clinics, and primary-care facilities in the Americas.(1/Oct/2004)
In English       CD45.R8  
en español     CD45.R8  
en Français    CD45.R8  
em Português CD45.R8  

Informal Consultation on Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Countries with Limited Resources (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23–25 June 2004)
The objective of this informal consultation was to get feedback on key elements of a draft influenza pandemic preparedness checklist prepared by WHO. Specific objectives were to: (1) raise awareness of the need and potential benefits of pandemic preparedness; (2) understand the processes involved in planning influenza pandemic preparedness; (3) reach some consensus on the priority components of a pandemic plan; (4) develop specific recommendations relevant to the high-priority areas of pandemic planning; (5) identify the way forward for Member States as they develop their pandemic plans; and (6) identify whether WHO assistance is needed and, if so, what form it should take. This page contains a summary and access to the full text.(25/Jun/2004)
In English       HTML(9.75k)  
en español     HTML(12.25k)   PDF(138.47k)  

Frequently Asked Questions on the Proposed Revision of the International Health Regulations (IHRs)
These 21 questions have been made available to the countries for the revision process of the International Health Regulations (IHRs) currently in progress. The revisions will be discussed and ratified during the upcoming World Health Assembly in May 2005.(17/Jun/2004)
In English       WHO: IHR FAQs  
en español     HTML(35.17k)  
en Français    OMS, Questions RSI  

WHO Consultation on Priority Public Health Interventions before and during an Influenza Pandemic (Geneva, 27 April 2004)
The purpose of this technical consultation meeting was to approach the topic of preparedness for a flu epidemic. More than 100 experts from 33 countries participated, discussing a broad spectrum of measures to be carried out by WHO and national authorities before and during a pandemic. The three main objectives were to prevent potential pandemics as they appear, reduce transmission at national and international levels, and reduce high levels of morbidity, mortality and social impact. WHO link listed below provides access to the opening address, executive summary and to the full text, as well as other useful links related to this topic.(27/Apr/2004)
In English       WHO/CSR  
en español     HTML(22.44k)   PDF(514.42k)  

Number of Cases and Deaths from Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) (Region of the Americas, 1993–2003)
This data table shows the number of cases and deaths from hantavirus in the Region, by country, from 1993 to 2004.(26/Apr/2004)
In English       HTML(11.18k)  
en español     HTML(11.34k)  

Avian Influenza A (H5N1) in Humans and in Poultry in Asia: Food Safety Considerations
This fact sheet addresses how the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in poultry in Viet Nam and similar reports from several countries in the region have sparked concern about the source of infection and the risk of human transmission, especially given the presence of avian influenza virus H5N1 in patients in Viet Nam and in Thailand.(24/Jan/2004)
In English       WHO  
en español     WHO  

Avian Influenza
This fact sheet contains information on the disease in birds: impact and control measures; a constantly mutating virus: two consequences; human infection with avian influenza: a timeline; why H5N1 is of particular concern; influenza pandemics: can they be averted?; and the clinical course and treatment of human cases of H5N1 avian influenza.(15/Jan/2004)
In English       WHO/CSR  

CD44.R8--Influenza Pandemic: Preparation in the Hemisphere
This resolution of the 44th PAHO Directing Council sets forth the PAHO mandate for dealing with the possibility of an influenza pandemic.(26/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R8  
en español     CD44.R8  
en Français    CD44.R8  
em Português CD44.R8  

Resolution CD44.R9: Dengue
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003 sets forth the mandate for the struggle against dengue in the Americas.(26/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R9  
en español     CD44.R9  
en Français    CD44.R9  
em Português CD44.R9  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

SARS: Developing a Research Response (30 May 2003, NIH/NIAID, Bethesda, MD, USA)
In order to address research needs on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), PAHO/WHO participated together with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, USA, in an all-day scientific workshop at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The workshop featured international experts in the fields of coronavirus biology, vaccine development, antiviral drug development, laboratory diagnosis, SARS epidemiology, etiology and clinical management. This page provides a link to the NIH site with the presentations made at the workshop.(30/May/2003)
In English       NIH  
en español     HTML(8.13k)  

Case Development of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) (Region of the Americas, by country and year, 1993-2002)
This table shows the rising incidence of Hantavirus in the Americas, by country, from 1993 to 2002.(1/Jan/2003)
In English       WORDL(77.31k)   PDF(255.12k)  
en español     PDF(252.18k)  

West Nile Virus Fact Sheet
This two-page fact sheet summarizes the basic facts about this emerging infectious disease: where it started, how it is spreading, its reservoirs and vectors, risks to humans, and recommendations for prevention and control. (PAHO document OPS/HCP/HCT/222/2002)(13/Sep/2002)
In English       HTML(8.13k)   WORDL(132.61k)   PDF(82.02k)  
en español     HTML(9.3k)   WORDL(131.58k)   PDF(78.55k)  
en Français    HTML(10.07k)   WORDL(131.58k)   PDF(82.7k)  
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Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus (13 September 2002)
Due to the threatened spread of West Nile virus to the countries of the Region, the Program on Communicable Diseases has summarized some general guidelines as PAHO's recommendations on the surveillance of this disease, based on the proceedings and discussion in the "West Nile Virus Surveillance Workshop" organized by PAHO at CAREC in Trinidad and Tobago from 29 April to 3 May 2002. The guidelines’ objective is to timely detect West Nile virus activity in reservoir populations and vectors in order to institute the appropriate measures in terms of enhanced surveillance, transmission and vector control, as well as mass communication. (PAHO Document OPS/HCP/HCT/221/2002)(13/Sep/2002)
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WHA55.17: Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Prevention and Control
This resolution from the World Health Assembly is the foundation for PAHO's mandate in the struggle against dengue in the Americas.(18/May/2002)
In English       WHA55.17  
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CD43.R4: Dengue and Dengue Hemorraghic Fever
Resolution adopted during the 43rd Directing Council, Washington, DC, 26 September 2001, to establish the PAHO mandate for combatting dengue and DHF.(26/Sep/2001)
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CE128.R13 - Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Resolution adopted during the 128th Executive Committee in Washington, DC, June 2001. It lays the foundation for the PAHO mandate for dengue.(28/Jun/2001)
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Método para el trampeo y muestreo de pequeños mamíferos para estudios virológicos
Las enfermedades infecciosas siguen siendo la causa principal de defunción entre los humanos en todo el mundo, a pesar de los grandes avances médicos logrados durante la segunda mitad del siglo veinte. Muchas enfermedades infecciosas han sido reconocidas como amenazas para la salud humana; otras, las "emergentes", se han identificado solo recientemente. Un número significativo de estas enfermedades se clasifica como zoonosis, debido a que los animales constituyen su reservorio natural.(1/Feb/1998)
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Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control (2nd ed.)
This second edition of the original WHO guide on dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is designed for widespread use among health practitioners, laboratory and vector-control personnel, and public-health officials. It is a concise reference with practical information on dengue and DHF with updated information on laboratory diagnosis and vector surveillance and control, integrating the work of international experts and the results of global meetings.(31/Dec/1997)
In English       WHO