Seasonal Influenza

Visit the Seasonal Influenza Page for an organized listing of the materials available on this topic.

   Technical Documents


Technical Documents

The Global Influenza Surveillance Network
Every year more than 250 million doses of influenza vaccine are produced that help to protect the world's population against influenza infections. For over 50 years the process by which an effective vaccine is developed and manufactured has relied on the international cooperation of a wide range of public health partners brought together under the coordination of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Global Influenza Surveillance Network. This fact sheet provides more details.(31/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(305.94k)  
en español     PDF(295.13k)  
en Français    PDF   

Infection Control Strategies for Specific Procedures in Health-Care Facilities: Epidemic-prone and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases, A Quick Reference Guide
This document is addressed to infection control professionals, occupational health specialists and other professionals involved in patient care in health-care facilities. It is designed to provide quick reference guidance on infection prevention and control to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care.(20/Oct/2008)
In English       PDF(237.06k)  
en español     PDF(158.05k)  

Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Resistance to Oseltamivir--2008 Influenza Season, Southern Hemisphere
During weeks 26–27 (15-28 June), the level of overall influenza activity in the world increased reflecting the situation in southern hemisphere. However, influenza A (H1N1)virus circulation remains generally low in all countries reporting influenza activity at this time. WHO has received several reports from National Influenza Centres in the southern hemisphere regarding influenza A (H1N1)virus resistance to oseltamivir. This documents provides a summary plus summary data tables.(18/Jul/2008)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(118.61k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Epidemic-prone & pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases: Infection prevention & control in health-care facilities, Summary guidance
This 44-page handbook provides advice for health-care workers on infection control of acute respiratory diseases (ARDs): reporting and isolating suspected cases; applying standard precautions, standard and droplet precautions, contact and droplet precautions, airborne precautions, and ventilating with regard to influenza-like illness (ILI) and viral, bacterial, and novel ARDs (e.g. SARS).(30/Jun/2007)
In English       PDF(2793.65k)  
en español     PDF(2493.12k)  

Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic- and Pandemic-Prone Acute Respiratory Diseases in Health Care: WHO Interim Guidelines
The purpose of this document is to provide infection control guidance to help prevent the transmission of acute infectious respiratory diseases during health care, with emphasis on acute respiratory diseases that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern as defined in the International Health Regulations (2005; Annex 1). Managers of health-care facilities may also consider using this guidance to assist them in preparation for epidemics and pandemics. It is intended for use by government planners, healthcare facility administrators, infection control professionals, occupational health specialists, other professionals involved in patient care, and direct care providers.(29/Jun/2007)
In English       WHO  
en español     PDF(1881.78k)  

The PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases and its activities to support the Member States in their fight against emerging viral infections of epidemic character.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(2.47k)  
en español     HTML(2.68k)  

The Role of National Influenza Centres (NICs) during Interpandemic, Pandemic Alert and Pandemic Periods
National Influenza Centres (NICs) are the backbone of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), working to protect global public health by updating seasonal influenza vaccine compositions and functioning as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. As a result, it has contributed greatly to the understanding of influenza epidemiology and supporting WHO recommendations for surveillance and vaccine preparation.(31/May/2007)
In English       The Role of National Influenza Centres (NICs)-WHO  
en español     PDF(102.3k)  

Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.(20/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.91k)  

CAREC Surveillance Report
PAHO's Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) compiles epidemiological data on influenza activity in the English-speaking Caribbean, which it publishes on a regular basis in the CAREC Surveillance Report (CSR). CSR also publishes similar information on other diseases.(4/Apr/2006)
In English       CAREC/CSR  
en español     CAREC/CSR  

Influenza (WHO Fact Sheet No. 211)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on influenza (flu, grippe), a respiratory disease caused by a virus that attacks mainly the upper respiratory tract--the nose, throat, and bronchi and rarely also the lungs. Sections are provided entitled Overview, the Virus, Pandemic Influenza, Transmission, Diagnosis, Prevention: Influenza Vaccines, Treatment and Prophylaxis: Antiviral Agents, and Related Links.(3/Apr/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Advice on Use of Oseltamivir
The antiviral drug Oseltamivir(Tamiflu®) is recommended for use for both treatment and prophylaxis (prevention) of influenza. This document offers WHO's recommendations on its use.(17/Mar/2006)
In English       WHO  

Influenza: Technical Module (Peru)
This technical document in Spanish, put together by the General Office of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health of Peru and the National Institute of Health of Peru offers up-to-date information in the form of a manual on influenza for doctors and laboratory technicians working in the country.(19/Oct/2005)
In English       Handbook in Spanish  
en español     Módulo técnico  

Summary of Influenza Activity, September 2004 - August 2005 (Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER): Vol. 80, No. 41, pp. 353–360)
This article summarizes influenza activity worldwide over the period in question and also contains a data table on the extent and type of influenza activity worldwide confirmed by virus isolation, September 2004–August 2005.(14/Oct/2005)
In English       WHO/WER  
en Français    OMS/REH  

Workshop on the Epidemiology and Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Diseases (Decatur, Georgia, USA, 9–13 May 2005)
The objectives of this meeting were (1) to discuss activities on the epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza and analyze the subject of pandemic influenza, as well as present basic and advanced methods of influenza prevention and control; and (2) to find out the degree of progress made in the countries and coordinate development of National Preparedness Plans for a possible influenza pandemic, and to provide tools to assist in the planning process and discuss vaccines and antivirals as prevention and control methods, with a view to a possible pandemic. This page offers the executive summary and access to other conference documentation in Spanish. (13/May/2005)
In English       HTML(11.5k)  
en español     HTML(11.45k)  

PAHO-CDC Generic Proposal for Influenza Surveillance
Given the need to expand influenza surveillance, PAHO--in collaboration with CDC-- developed a new Generic Protocol for Influenza Surveillance (GPIS). The GPIS seeks to harmonize influenza surveillance throughout the Region and ensure that any single case of influenza caused by a new viral subtype be detected, as required by the IHR 2005.(15/Dec/2004)
In English       HTML(3.11k)   PDF(4691.5k)  
en español     HTML(3.42k)   PDF(4950.53k)  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6