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Technical Documents

Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health
Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in all the countries of the Americas. This strategy was created to deal with this new epidemic: It Strategy is comprehensive, requiring a combination of interventions for the population and individuals. It is integrated, spanning prevention and control strategies focusing on the major chronic diseases and cross-cutting risk factors (especially diet, physical activity, tobacco, and alcohol). Finally, it is intersectoral, because most of the major determinants of the chronic-disease burden lie outside the health sector. This page offers an executive summary and access to the full text in PAHO publication format, as well as related initiatives.(4/Sep/2008)
In English       HTML(6.92k)   PDF(1669.81k)  
en español     HTML(7.68k)   PDF(1662.37k)  
en Français    PDF(754.25k)  
em Português PDF(625.47k)  

PAHO Plan of Action for Cancer Prevention and Control: Cancer Stakeholders Meeting (Washington, DC, 11-12 June 2008)
The purpose of this meeting was to discuss an action plan for cancer prevention and control for LAC, with representatives from governments, cancer institutions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), professional associations, and PAHO/WHO. This page contains a summary of the meeting with agenda and list of participants plus 4 fact sheets.(12/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(11.77k)  
en español     HTML(13.18k)  

Chronic Diseases: PAHO Activities
This page describes the mission, priority areas and activities related to chronic diseases: not only cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes but also risk-factor surveillance and integrated risk-factor and disease management (diet and physical activity, etc.).(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(4.2k)  
en español     HTML(4.67k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

Annual Meeting of the CARMEN Observatory on Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Policy: Mobilizing for Action (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 12-13 May 2008)
PAHO and the Public Health Agency of Canada have been collaborating for a number of years in the CARMEN Policy Observatory for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs). In addition to the latest meeting proceedings, this site provides access to the documentation for this year plus other resources, in all four PAHO official languages.(13/May/2008)
In English       PHAC  
en español     PHAC  
en Français    ASPC  
em Português PHAC  

Caribbean Private Sector Response to Chronic Diseases (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 8-9 May 2008)
The objective of this meeting was to mobilize the Caribbean private sector to take a more active role in the reduction of chronic noncommunicable diseases by implementing measures to reduce the risk of these diseases affecting its own employees as well as the wider community, as well as supporting a Caribbean Wellness Day. This page offers a downloadable CD-ROM with all documentation and presentations. (9/May/2008)
In English       HTML(9.01k)  
en español     HTML(11.21k)  

Promoting Physical Activity in the Caribbean (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 6-7 May 2008)
This training course was held to educate participants in the value of physical activity in promoting health, with real-life examples of built environments, public spaces, and urban planning that promote walking, biking, and use of public transportation. The online presentations contain the latest data on obesity and hundreds of photos that speak for themselves and prove how these concepts have been applied effectively, with arguments as to their validity that refute common myths as to why it can't be done. This page offers all training materials.(7/May/2008)
In English       HTML(7.73k)  
en español     HTML(9.9k)  

Workshop: Surveillance of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs) in the Southern Cone (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 23–25 April 2008)
The MERCOSUR countries are working with PAHO and Simon Fraser University in Vancouver to strengthen their CNCD surveillance systems. They now have an excellent opportunity to push for this at the MERCOSUR Ministers of Health Meeting in November. The purpose of this workshop was to coordinate efforts towards this end.(28/Apr/2008)
In English       HTML(6.01k)   PDF(220.82k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(212.59k)  

Dominica's National Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases Summit (14 December 2007)
Three months after the CARICOM Heads of Government NCD Summit in Port-of-Spain on 15 September 2007, Dominica held a National CNCD Summit. The meeting was attended by the President, Prime Minister, cabinet, and civil society, including the private sector, NGOs, and the media. This page contains a summary and the report.(14/Dec/2007)
In English       HTML(3.39k)  
en español     HTML(3.72k)  

CARMEN Network Biennial Meeting: Sharing, Learning, Imagining, Planning and Partnering to Implement the Chronic Disease Regional Strategy within the CARMEN Network (Nassau, Bahamas, 4–8 November 2007)
This page contains the materials and eventual output from the Biennial Meeting for the CARMEN Network for the integrated prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in the Americas. The meeting will include a variety of presentation from four main areas: policy and advocacy, surveillance and research, health promotion and disease prevention, and integrated disease and risk-factor management. This page contains all meeting materials, including the final report.(15/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(10.18k)  
en español     HTML(11.37k)  

Capacity-Building in Prevention and Control of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Focal Points Meeting (Panama City, Panama, 10–12 October 2007)
This page provides complete orientation on what PAHO is currently doing in the area of chronic noncommunicable disease prevention and control: While the Noncommunicable Disease Unit plays a main role role in implementing the Regional Strategy on diet, physical activity, and health, it is a shared responsibility among all staff working in chronic disease prevention and control across several PAHO Units and Areas, Country Offices, and Centers. This meeting provided an opportunity for professional briefing, updating, and agreement for all involved personnel throughout the Organization. This page provides all meeting materials and presentations and gives a thorough overview of the current situation, strategic direction, and planned activities. (12/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(15.86k)  
en español     HTML(17.43k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Guidelines for International Breast Health and Cancer Control
PAHO is pleased to support the publication of theseGuidelines for International Breast Health and Cancer Control from the Breast Health Global Initiative, contained in the January-February 2006 edition of The Breast Journal. This effort culminates more than two years of revision by many dedicated health-care professionals and others around the world. These are the only comprehensive consensus guidelines specifically addressing issues surrounding the implementation of any complete set of control measures for a specific cancer type in limited-resource countries.(26/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(11.32k)   BHGI  
en español     HTML(16.92k)   BHGI  

National Consultation: Strategies for a National Action Plan on Integrated Management and Epidemiological Surveillance of Chronic Diseases (Managua, Nicaragua, 2 July 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to establish a National Action Plan as well as a National Operational Plan for the execution of the lines of action of the Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to Chronic Diseases in Nicaragua. This page offers a summary, the agenda, and the seven PowerPoint presentations made at the meeting. (2/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(5.77k)  
en español     HTML(5.66k)  

WHA60.25: Integrating Gender Analysis and Actions into the Work of WHO: Draft Strategy
This resolution from the 60th World Health Assembly in 2007 sets forth the WHO mandate to analyze the data and act in ensuring and integrating gender equality into all health-related areas and all levels of health-care delivery and services for women and girls of all ages.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.25  
en español     WHA60.25  
en Français    WHA60.25  

CARMEN Management Committee Workshop Report (Toronto, 15-16 March 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to review progress to date and to discuss how a strengthened CARMEN initiatiive can support implementation of the PAHO Regional Strategy. Specific objectives included: (1) To report on progress to date; (2) To review the revised draft Terms of Reference; (3) To discuss future directions by reviewing the draft country profile tool, sharing information about supplementary tools, identifying possibilities for further development and piloting of tools and projects, as well as potential actions in support of the Regional Strategy and other actions to support an integrated approach to chronic disease; and (4) To begin planning for the next CARMEN Biennial Meeting (November 2007). (16/Mar/2007)
In English       PDF(384.98k)  

Subregional Meeting of Representatives and Center Directors from Central America, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and the US-Mexican Border Field Office (Belize City, 12–16 February 2007)
This consultation follows up on the one held in Panama in November 2007 on the implementation of the Estrategia regional y Plan de acción para un enfoque integrado sobre la prevención y el control de las enfermedades crónicas, incluyendo el régimen alimentario, la actividad física y la salud in Central America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. This page contains a summary of the consultation, a PowerPoint presentation on the Regional Strategy as it relates to Central America, and the results of the Panama meeting.(16/Feb/2007)
In English       HTML(4.41k)  
en español     HTML(4.84k)  

Stop the Global Epidemic of Chronic Disease: A Practical Guide to Successful Advocacy
Effective advocacy is needed to convince decision-makers that chronic diseases and health promotion merit increased investment at the national and local level, and that decisive action carries substantial, cost-effective benefits. 36 million lives can be saved over the next 10 years, which in turn will lead to substantial economic benefits to countries. This guide will help teach interested persons how to advocate more effectively.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       HTML(5.24k)   PDF(10047.49k)  
en español     HTML(6.19k)  
en Français    OMS  

Obesity and Overweight (WHO Fact Sheet No. 311)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on obesity and overweight. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. WHO defines "overweight" as a BMI equal to or more than 25, and "obesity" as a BMI equal to or more than 30. These cut-off points provide a benchmark for individual assessment, but there is evidence that risk of chronic disease in populations increases progressively from a BMI of 21.(24/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  
en Français    OMS  

Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI)
The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) strives to develop evidence-based, economically feasible and culturally appropriate Guidelines for underdeveloped nations to improve breast-health outcomes. PAHO and WHO are among the many organizations participating in this partnership.(30/Jan/2006)
In English       HTML(6.89k)   BHGI  
en español     HTML(7.76k)   BHGI  

CD46.R16: PAHO Gender Equality Policy
Resolution adopted at the 46th PAHO Directing Council in September 2005, which lays down the PAHO mandate for gender equality in health and development in the Americas, in accordance with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).(30/Sep/2005)
In English       PDF(22.47k)   CD46.R16  
en español     PDF(24.08k)   CD46.R16  
en Français    PDF(24.21k)   CD46.R16  
em Português PDF(23.84k)   CD46.R16  

This chapter of the book discusses the case of cancers, which rank among the leading causes of death in every nation, though there are great differences across cultural and environments. Risk and protective factors for digestive system cancers, cancers of the colon and rectum, cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus , larynx, pharynx, cancer of the liver, trachea, bronchus and lung, bladder, skin cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Pages 201-225. (Building Better Health: A Handbook of Behavioral Change, © PAHO, 2003) (You can purchase this chapter)(13/Oct/2003)
In English       Full Text  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Calculation for Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) by Gender for Selected Countries in Latin America & the Caribbean (1996-1999, per 100,000 pop., by gender)
These tables provide data for 1996-1999 (though rates are not available for all years in all cases) for the following NCDs: stomach cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, stroke, transport accidents, falling, firearms, drowning, respiratory trauma, electrocution, fire/smoke/burns, poisoning, other accidents, suicides, homicides, unknown intention, external causes and diabetes. The tables will be updated regularly and we invite our users to consult the site periodically for such updates. All calculations were done in accordance with International Classification of Disease (ICD), Version 10. Last update: 12 April 2004.(24/Jun/2002)
In English       HTML(117.47k)