Cervical Cancer

Visit the Cervical Cancer Page for an organized listing of the materials available on this topic.

   Technical Documents

Technical Documents

Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to the Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases Including Diet, Physical Activity, and Health
Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in all the countries of the Americas. This strategy was created to deal with this new epidemic: It Strategy is comprehensive, requiring a combination of interventions for the population and individuals. It is integrated, spanning prevention and control strategies focusing on the major chronic diseases and cross-cutting risk factors (especially diet, physical activity, tobacco, and alcohol). Finally, it is intersectoral, because most of the major determinants of the chronic-disease burden lie outside the health sector. This page offers an executive summary and access to the full text in PAHO publication format, as well as related initiatives.(4/Sep/2008)
In English       HTML(6.92k)   PDF(1669.81k)  
en español     HTML(7.68k)   PDF(1662.37k)  
en Français    PDF(754.25k)  
em Português PDF(625.47k)  

PanAmerican STEPS, the PAHO/WHO Stepwise Approach to Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance
The PAHO/WHO Stepwise Approach to Risk-Factor (RF) Surveillance (PanAmerican STEPS, or PanAm STEPS) is a simple, standardized method for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating RF data in Member Countries. This page describes the method and offers the main instrument, the question-by-question guide, and the official WHO manual.(26/Aug/2008)
In English       HTML(4.06k)  
en español     HTML(4.6k)  

CD48/6 - Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control
CD48/6 - Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control(14/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(103.14k)  
en español     PDF(109.6k)  
en Français    PDF(107.9k)  
em Português PDF(101.52k)  

Introduction to Social Marketing: Its Application for Promoting Healthy Lifestyles (Mexico City, Mexico, 28 July – 1 August 2008)
This 40-hour course was sponsored by PAHO's CARMEN School, the summer courses at the National Institute of Health of Mexico, and the University of South Florida. As a result, the technique of Social Marketing selected at the course will be used will be used for dissemination and application for social communication in the areas of obesity and overweight among children, physical activity, diabetes, cervical cancer, and limiting the sale of junk food and products from vending machines.(1/Aug/2008)
In English       HTML(6.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.73k)  

PAHO Plan of Action for Cancer Prevention and Control: Cancer Stakeholders Meeting (Washington, DC, 11-12 June 2008)
The purpose of this meeting was to discuss an action plan for cancer prevention and control for LAC, with representatives from governments, cancer institutions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), professional associations, and PAHO/WHO. This page contains a summary of the meeting with agenda and list of participants plus 4 fact sheets.(12/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(11.77k)  
en español     HTML(13.18k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

Chronic Diseases: PAHO Activities
This page describes the mission, priority areas and activities related to chronic diseases: not only cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes but also risk-factor surveillance and integrated risk-factor and disease management (diet and physical activity, etc.).(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(4.2k)  
en español     HTML(4.67k)  

Annual Meeting of the CARMEN Observatory on Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Policy: Mobilizing for Action (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 12-13 May 2008)
PAHO and the Public Health Agency of Canada have been collaborating for a number of years in the CARMEN Policy Observatory for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs). In addition to the latest meeting proceedings, this site provides access to the documentation for this year plus other resources, in all four PAHO official languages.(13/May/2008)
In English       PHAC  
en español     PHAC  
en Français    ASPC  
em Português PHAC  

Caribbean Private Sector Response to Chronic Diseases (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 8-9 May 2008)
The objective of this meeting was to mobilize the Caribbean private sector to take a more active role in the reduction of chronic noncommunicable diseases by implementing measures to reduce the risk of these diseases affecting its own employees as well as the wider community, as well as supporting a Caribbean Wellness Day. This page offers a downloadable CD-ROM with all documentation and presentations. (9/May/2008)
In English       HTML(9.01k)  
en español     HTML(11.21k)  

Promoting Physical Activity in the Caribbean (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 6-7 May 2008)
This training course was held to educate participants in the value of physical activity in promoting health, with real-life examples of built environments, public spaces, and urban planning that promote walking, biking, and use of public transportation. The online presentations contain the latest data on obesity and hundreds of photos that speak for themselves and prove how these concepts have been applied effectively, with arguments as to their validity that refute common myths as to why it can't be done. This page offers all training materials.(7/May/2008)
In English       HTML(7.73k)  
en español     HTML(9.9k)  

Workshop: Surveillance of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs) in the Southern Cone (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 23–25 April 2008)
The MERCOSUR countries are working with PAHO and Simon Fraser University in Vancouver to strengthen their CNCD surveillance systems. They now have an excellent opportunity to push for this at the MERCOSUR Ministers of Health Meeting in November. The purpose of this workshop was to coordinate efforts towards this end.(28/Apr/2008)
In English       HTML(6.01k)   PDF(220.82k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)   PDF(212.59k)  

Dominica's National Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases Summit (14 December 2007)
Three months after the CARICOM Heads of Government NCD Summit in Port-of-Spain on 15 September 2007, Dominica held a National CNCD Summit. The meeting was attended by the President, Prime Minister, cabinet, and civil society, including the private sector, NGOs, and the media. This page contains a summary and the report.(14/Dec/2007)
In English       HTML(3.39k)  
en español     HTML(3.72k)  

CARMEN Network Biennial Meeting: Sharing, Learning, Imagining, Planning and Partnering to Implement the Chronic Disease Regional Strategy within the CARMEN Network (Nassau, Bahamas, 4–8 November 2007)
This page contains the materials and eventual output from the Biennial Meeting for the CARMEN Network for the integrated prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in the Americas. The meeting will include a variety of presentation from four main areas: policy and advocacy, surveillance and research, health promotion and disease prevention, and integrated disease and risk-factor management. This page contains all meeting materials, including the final report.(15/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(10.18k)  
en español     HTML(11.37k)  

Capacity-Building in Prevention and Control of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Focal Points Meeting (Panama City, Panama, 10–12 October 2007)
This page provides complete orientation on what PAHO is currently doing in the area of chronic noncommunicable disease prevention and control: While the Noncommunicable Disease Unit plays a main role role in implementing the Regional Strategy on diet, physical activity, and health, it is a shared responsibility among all staff working in chronic disease prevention and control across several PAHO Units and Areas, Country Offices, and Centers. This meeting provided an opportunity for professional briefing, updating, and agreement for all involved personnel throughout the Organization. This page provides all meeting materials and presentations and gives a thorough overview of the current situation, strategic direction, and planned activities. (12/Oct/2007)
In English       HTML(15.86k)  
en español     HTML(17.43k)  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

National Consultation: Strategies for a National Action Plan on Integrated Management and Epidemiological Surveillance of Chronic Diseases (Managua, Nicaragua, 2 July 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to establish a National Action Plan as well as a National Operational Plan for the execution of the lines of action of the Regional Strategy on an Integrated Approach to Chronic Diseases in Nicaragua. This page offers a summary, the agenda, and the seven PowerPoint presentations made at the meeting. (2/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(5.77k)  
en español     HTML(5.66k)  

WHA60.25: Integrating Gender Analysis and Actions into the Work of WHO: Draft Strategy
This resolution from the 60th World Health Assembly in 2007 sets forth the WHO mandate to analyze the data and act in ensuring and integrating gender equality into all health-related areas and all levels of health-care delivery and services for women and girls of all ages.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.25  
en español     WHA60.25  
en Français    WHA60.25  

10 Key Findings and Recommendations for Effective Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Programs
This two-page ACCP Fact Sheet summarizes outline 10 key findings and recommendations for global policy and practice related to cervical cancer screening and treatment in low-resource settings. It is based on studies carried out in four countries all over the world, with PAHO's study the TATI project in Peru. PAHO is a member of the ACCP.(30/Apr/2007)
In English       PDF(84.74k)  

CARMEN Management Committee Workshop Report (Toronto, 15-16 March 2007)
The purpose of this meeting was to review progress to date and to discuss how a strengthened CARMEN initiatiive can support implementation of the PAHO Regional Strategy. Specific objectives included: (1) To report on progress to date; (2) To review the revised draft Terms of Reference; (3) To discuss future directions by reviewing the draft country profile tool, sharing information about supplementary tools, identifying possibilities for further development and piloting of tools and projects, as well as potential actions in support of the Regional Strategy and other actions to support an integrated approach to chronic disease; and (4) To begin planning for the next CARMEN Biennial Meeting (November 2007). (16/Mar/2007)
In English       PDF(384.98k)  

Subregional Meeting of Representatives and Center Directors from Central America, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and the US-Mexican Border Field Office (Belize City, 12–16 February 2007)
This consultation follows up on the one held in Panama in November 2007 on the implementation of the Estrategia regional y Plan de acción para un enfoque integrado sobre la prevención y el control de las enfermedades crónicas, incluyendo el régimen alimentario, la actividad física y la salud in Central America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. This page contains a summary of the consultation, a PowerPoint presentation on the Regional Strategy as it relates to Central America, and the results of the Panama meeting.(16/Feb/2007)
In English       HTML(4.41k)  
en español     HTML(4.84k)  

Stop the Global Epidemic of Chronic Disease: A Practical Guide to Successful Advocacy
Effective advocacy is needed to convince decision-makers that chronic diseases and health promotion merit increased investment at the national and local level, and that decisive action carries substantial, cost-effective benefits. 36 million lives can be saved over the next 10 years, which in turn will lead to substantial economic benefits to countries. This guide will help teach interested persons how to advocate more effectively.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       HTML(5.24k)   PDF(10047.49k)  
en español     HTML(6.19k)  
en Français    OMS  

Cervical Cancer Prevention in Peru: Lessons Learned from the TATI Demonstration Project
In Peru, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. In low-resource settings, the usefulness has been demonstrated of a 'see, triage, and treat' approach consisting of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for screening, Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid Magnified (VIAM) as a triage test, and treatment by cryotherapy. In the region of San Martín, Peru, such a low-resource setting, a cervical cancer demonstration project was developed to evaluate the population effectiveness of this 'see, triage, and treat' approach. This page provides a summary and access to the full-text report.(15/Dec/2006)
In English       HTML(12.19k)   PDF(2013.2k)  
en español     HTML(13.23k)   PDF(1876.56k)  

CD47.R18: Health of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas
Taking note of the existence of inequities in health and access to health care services that affect more than 45 million indigenous people living in the Americas; and because the United Nations Millennium Declaration cannot be reached unless the specific health needs of excluded populations, such as indigenous peoples, are addressed, this resolution of the 47th PAHO Directing Council in 2006 sets for the mandate to take a multicultural approach to include these groups and work towards greater equity and better health for all.(29/Sep/2006)
In English       CD47.R18  
en español     CD47.R18  
en Français    CD47.R18  
em Português CD47.R18  

Preparing for the Introduction of HPV Vaccines: Policy and Programme Guidance for Countries
This guidance note is based on a UNFPA/WHO Technical Consultation on HPV Vaccines and Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes, held in March 2006 in Montreux, Switzerland. It is intended to alert a broad array of stakeholders--in sexual and reproductive health, immunization, child and adolescent health, and cancer control programmes--to some of the key issues surrounding the upcoming introduction of HPV vaccines against cervical cancer. In particular, it highlights the contributions that national immunization programmes, sexual and reproductive health programmes, and cancer control programmes can make in preparing for national introduction of the vaccines in the context of the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy. PAHO was a collaborator in this endeavor.(28/Aug/2006)
In English       WHO  

Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control: A Guide to Essential Practice
This publication--produced by WHO and its partners--is designed to provide comprehensive practical advice to health care providers at all levels of the health care system on how to prevent, detect early, treat and palliate cervical cancer. The link provides access to the full text with a summary. (2/Jun/2006)
In English       WHO  
en español     OMS  
en Français    OMS  

CD46.R16: PAHO Gender Equality Policy
Resolution adopted at the 46th PAHO Directing Council in September 2005, which lays down the PAHO mandate for gender equality in health and development in the Americas, in accordance with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).(30/Sep/2005)
In English       PDF(22.47k)   CD46.R16  
en español     PDF(24.08k)   CD46.R16  
en Français    PDF(24.21k)   CD46.R16  
em Português PDF(23.84k)   CD46.R16  

Update: Situation of Cervical Cancer in the Americas (2002 data)
This page contains a graph and three tables to update data published by PAHO at the end of 2004 in A Situational Analysis of Cervical Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean: Malignant Neoplasms of the Cervix uteri--Estimated Age-Specific Mortality Rates; Malignant Neoplasms of the Cervix uteri, Estimated Incident Cases and Deaths; Malignant Neoplasms of the Cervix uteri--Age-Standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates; and Estimated Age-Adjusted Incidence Rates for Breast and Cervical Cancers.(24/Jan/2005)
In English       HTML(19.49k)  
en español     HTML(20.44k)  

Preventing Cervical Cancer Worldwide
Cervical cancer kills hundreds of thousands of women—-most in developing countries—-every year. A new report from Population Reference Bureau (PRB) and the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP, of which PAHO is a member) reviews the latest prevention and treatment techniques for the disease.(31/Dec/2004)
In English      

A Situational Analysis of Cervical Cancer in Latin America & the Caribbean
This 2003 analysis of cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean, published at the end of 2003, provides information for public-health professionals, policy-makers and advocates involved in the development and management of cervical cancer prevention and control programs. It represents a synthesis of data and information derived from many sources.(31/Dec/2004)
In English       HTML(5.09k)   PDF(1261.56k)  
en español     HTML(5.49k)   PDF(1284.25k)  

Coverage and focus of a cervical cancer prevention program in southern Brazil
Objective: To determine the coverage and focus of cervical cancer screening (Pap smears) in a population-based sample in Brazil. (Rev Panam Salud Pública 2004, 16(4):223-233) (You can purchase this article)(10/May/2004)
In English       Full Text  

This chapter of the book discusses the case of cancers, which rank among the leading causes of death in every nation, though there are great differences across cultural and environments. Risk and protective factors for digestive system cancers, cancers of the colon and rectum, cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus , larynx, pharynx, cancer of the liver, trachea, bronchus and lung, bladder, skin cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Pages 201-225. (Building Better Health: A Handbook of Behavioral Change, © PAHO, 2003) (You can purchase this chapter)(13/Oct/2003)
In English       Full Text  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Overcoming Shame: Three Stories from El Salvador
This color bilingual public-education booklet is about a killer is on the loose that targets only women. But the silence, shame, and ignorance surrounding it are very difficult to conquer. The killer is cervical cancer, a disease that claims the lives of at least 500 women each day in developing countries, making it the most lethal of the neoplasms that strike women. These are needless deaths from a preventable disease. If detected in time, cervical cancer can be treated and cured. (31/Jul/2003)
In English       PDF(528.2k)  
en español     PDF(528.21k)  

Between Myth and Life, Between Myth and Reality: Two Stories
The mythology of the rainforest is one of the major obstacles encountered by professionals from the Health Bureau of the San Martín Region of Peru in their daily work to prevent and control diseases such as cervical cancer. Amid this jungle of prejudice and lack of medical care, where illiteracy among women reaches 26.9%, specialists struggle day by day to convince local people that health professionals can be trusted. This booklet, the cover of which can also be used as a poster, tells the story of how the TATI Intervention worked to improve the situation of preventive care against cervical cancer among the women of the community.(31/Oct/2002)
In English       PDF(805.57k)  
en español     PDF(803.64k)  

Glossary of Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Methods for Cervical Cancer
The glossary contains definitions of the terms most used nowadays in the area of screening, diagnosis and treatment methods for cervical cancer.(1/Aug/2002)
In English       WORDL(763.39k)   PDF(417.58k)  

Calculation for Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) by Gender for Selected Countries in Latin America & the Caribbean (1996-1999, per 100,000 pop., by gender)
These tables provide data for 1996-1999 (though rates are not available for all years in all cases) for the following NCDs: stomach cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, stroke, transport accidents, falling, firearms, drowning, respiratory trauma, electrocution, fire/smoke/burns, poisoning, other accidents, suicides, homicides, unknown intention, external causes and diabetes. The tables will be updated regularly and we invite our users to consult the site periodically for such updates. All calculations were done in accordance with International Classification of Disease (ICD), Version 10. Last update: 12 April 2004.(24/Jun/2002)
In English       HTML(117.47k)  

Cervical Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet 2001
This summary provides a brief snapshot of the current situation for cervical cancer as it affects the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, with the basic facts and figures and recommendations for prevention and control.(10/Jul/2001)
In English       HTML(9.97k)   WORDL(1078.27k)   PDF(546.26k)  

Training Manual, TATI Project
Under the training component of the TATI Project ("Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervicouterinas", or Screening and Immediate Treatment of Cervical Lesions), a Training Manual was prepared for use by health professionals. Its purpose is to provide a clear, detailed, and up-to-date summary of the essential topics that every health professional engaged in cervical cancer prevention and control programs must know. This page offers a summary of the forthcoming publication. (Word, 226 KB)(10/Jul/2001)
In English       WORDL(232.96k)   PDF(247.31k)  

Improving Country Programs via a Cervical Cancer Information System: A Tool for Program Management and Evaluation
Cervical cancer screening programs require information systems to record, track and monitor women’s test and follow-up results, and ultimately to measure the impact of screening programs on cervical cancer incidence and mortality. PAHO has developed an information system model for cervical cancer screening programs which it is hoped after appropriate collaborative discussion and pilot testing with national authorities will meet the needs of Latin American and Caribbean countries.(10/Jul/2001)
In English       WORDL(609.28k)   PDF(474.68k)  

Bridging Distances in Women's Preventive Services and Concerns: Improving Quality and Communication
This page contains an abstract of a conference paper, the central purpose of which was to provide a comprehensive framework for understanding women’s perceptions regarding cervical cancer, and particularly towards early detection.(10/Jul/2001)
In English       WORDL(233.47k)   PDF(224.88k)  

Prevención de Cáncer Cervico-Uterino: Ficha Descriptiva--Pruebas de Papanicolaou: Un método de tamizaje importante pero imperfecto
Como alternativa a la prueba tradicional de PAP y para mejor el tratamiento existente, las nuevas tecnologías pueden mejorar la exactitud de tales pruebas, las cuales están descritas en esta hoja con las recomendaciones correspondientes para formular políticas de salud.(28/Feb/2001)
en español     PDF(63.88k)  

Relación causal entre virus del papiloma humano y cáncer cervicouterino y consecuencias para la prevención
En el presente artículo (Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana 121 [6] 1996) se revisan las pruebas epidemiológicas que vinculan a los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) con el cáncer cervicouterino. Los autores llegan a la conclusión de que más de 90% de todos los cánceres de cuello de útero se pueden atribuir a ciertos tipos de VPH, de los cuales el VPH 16 representa la mayor proporción (alrededor de 50%), seguido de los VPH 18 (12%), 45 (8%) y 31 (5%).(1/Dec/1996)
en español     PDF(1584.43k)