Tropical Diseases

   Technical Documents


Technical Documents

2008: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2008 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report with subregional subtotals and information on serotypes. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.(31/Dec/2008)
In English       HTML(53.9k)   PDF(52.59k)  

Color the chinches! Salvadorean Primary School Project to Educate Children on How to Prevent Chagas Disease
Illustrated on this page is a simple tool used by elementary schools in El Salvador to teach children how to identify chinches picudas, or the specific triatomine insect Triatoma dimidiata that is the main vector transmitting the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite and hence, Chagas disease. Below is the sheet given to the pupils to color and a photo of the children engaged in the activity. This material was developed by the PAHO/JICA collaborative project with the Ministry of Health of El Salvador.(9/Oct/2008)
In English       HTML(2.91k)  
en español     HTML(2.97k)  

El Salvador: Activities to Fight Chagas Disease
This page serves as a resource with links to all online PAHO information on Chagas disease in El Salvador and current prevention and control activities taking place there: the subregional initiative, events, missions, photos, maps, etc.(8/Oct/2008)
In English       HTML(6.1k)  
en español     HTML(6.56k)  

IPCA: Initiative of the Countries of Central America for Control of Vector-Borne and Transfusional Transmission and Medical Care for Chagas Disease
This information sheet describes the activities of the subregional initiative to fight Chagas Disease in Central America, where PAHO and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) collaborate with the country health authorities. It contains links to proceedings from meetings, project facts, maps, IEC materials, photos, etc.(7/Oct/2008)
In English       HTML(14.71k)  
en español     HTML(15.13k)  

Malaria in the Americas: Time Series Epidemiological Data from 2000 to 2007
Data on the Region and on 21 countries are compiled in Excel charts embedded within a PowerPoint PDF presentation, first by Region and then by countries (listed alphabetically, with bookmarks to each of the 22 sections). There are six slides per country (according to data available), including (1) populations at risk, (2) malaria morbidity, (3) malariometric indices (API, AFI, AVI), (4) malaria microscopy, (5) slide positivity rate (SPR), and (6) malaria mortality.(13/Sep/2008)
In English       PDF(528.37k)  

Status of Malaria in the Americas, 1994-2007: A Series of Data Tables
These 13 Excel PDF data tables present the most recent summary of important malaria indicators/data: populations at risk, cases in non-malarious countries, morbidity in endemic countries, slide positivity rate, passive and active case detection, antimalarials used; completed treatments, malarious areas and control priorities, national malaria program budgets, and P. falciparum cases and treatment policies. Data presented in the tables are based on official annual reports from the health ministries of the respective countries.(11/Sep/2008)
In English       PDF(118.78k)  

Malaria Morbidity in the Americas: Baseline, Trends, and Targets (in Endemic Countries)
From more than 1.1 million cases reported in 2000, the Region lowered malaria morbidity to approximately 775,000 in 2007 or a decrease of 32%. These three tables and charts illustrate the current status of malaria in the 21 endemic countries of the Americas in comparison with baseline figures in 2000 and targets for 2010 and 2015. The overall decrease in 16 countries and increase in 5 were monitored in the context of strengthened health surveillance systems.(11/Sep/2008)
In English       PDF(52.72k)  

World Malaria Report 2008
Half of the world's population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 247 million cases led to nearly 881 000 deaths in 2006. The World malaria report 2008 describes the global distribution of cases and deaths, how WHO-recommended control strategies have been adopted and implemented in endemic countries, sources of funding for malaria control, and recent evidence that prevention and treatment can alleviate the burden of disease.(1/Sep/2008)
In English       WHO/GMP  

Network of PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centers and National Reference Laboratories for Dengue in the Americas
One of the objectives of PAHO/WHO is to strengthen diagnostic laboratory networks in the Region and promote exchange and technological transfer among them. For each institution, by country, the list below includes a general information sheet describing the objectives, mission and vision, publications, and research projects of each PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center and National Reference Laboratory involved in diagnosing dengue in the Americas. At the end of each sheet is a link to a questionnaire on the laboratories' capacity, the techniques they use, and the networks in which they participate.(29/Aug/2008)
In English       HTML(8.91k)  
en español     HTML(8.52k)  

CD48/13 - Integrated Vector Management: A Comprehensive Response to Vector-borne Diseases
CD48/13Integrated Vector Management: A Comprehensive Response to Vector-borne Diseases(14/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(68.03k)  
en español     PDF(71.64k)  
en Français    PDF(72.58k)  
em Português PDF(68.46k)  

CD48/10: Towards the Elimination of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) in the Region of the Americas
This report from the 48th session of the PAHO Directing Council reports on the current situation and progress made towards achieving the PAHO mandate of eliminating onchocercaisis (river blindness) from the Region of the Americas.(14/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(157.94k)  
en español     PDF(157.56k)  
en Français    PDF(151.09k)  
em Português PDF(161.38k)  

Emmanuel Dias: Súmula biográfica
O Doutor João Carlos Pinto Dias, destacado pesquisador e sanitarista brasileiro em doença de Chagas de reconhecimento mundial, tem nos feito chegar na ocasião dos 100 anos do natalício de seu pai o referente do século XX em matéria de doença de Chagas, Doutor Emmanuel Dias, este resumo biográfico comemorativo.(28/Jul/2008)
em Português PDF   

10 Facts about Neglected Tropical Diseases
These ten facts provide a basic overview on what constitutes neglected tropical diseases and what is being done to combat them.(23/Jun/2008)
In English       WHO  

Preventive Chemotherapy in Human Helminthiasis--Controlled Use of Antihelminthic Drugs: A Manual for Health Professionals and Programme Managers
This manual is intended to guide the coordinated implementation of regular, systematic, large-scale interventions that provide anthelminthic drug treatment as a core component of the joint and synergic control of helminthic diseases such as lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The manual is accompanied by the dose-poles (in poster format, to display proper dosage by height).(23/Jun/2008)
In English       WHO  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

CE142/18: Onchocerciasis: Progress Report
This report from the PAHO Executive Committee gives an account of the current situation and progress made towards complying with the PAHO mandate of eliminating onchocerciasis (river blindness) from the Americas.(22/May/2008)
In English       PDF(115.16k)  
en español     PDF(116.54k)  

RIMSA 15: Inter-American Meeting at Ministerial Level on Health and Agriculture (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11–12 June 2008)
Comprehensive new site: PAHO will once again hold its biennial meeting where ministers of health and agriculture discuss common concerns related to animal diseases, diseases transmitted to human by animals, and agricultural/livestock production and food safety. This year's theme is Agriculture and Health: Alliance for Equity and Rural Development in the Americas.(19/May/2008)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

Workshop to Design a Comprehensive Strategy for Primary Health Care (PHC) for Controlling Chagas Disease in the Chaco Region: Elaboration of a Protocol and Intervention Guidelines in Three Pilot Areas (La Paz, Bolivia, 14–16 May 2008)
The objective of this meeting was to Validate a comprehensive and sustainable intervention strategy for the prevention, control, and treatment of Chagas disease in the biogeographical region of the Bolivian Chaco, which will contribute to the development of the region and improvement of the quality of life of its inhabitants. This page offers a summary in English and access to the 28-page meeting report in Spanish.(16/May/2008)
In English       HTML(12.59k)  
en español     HTML(12.6k)   PDF(1803.44k)  

2007: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2007 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report with subregional subtotals and information on serotypes. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.(5/Mar/2008)
In English       HTML(39.69k)   PDF(51.37k)  

Yellow Fever: Number of Cases and Deaths, 1960–2007
This Excel PDF data table provides quantitative data on the number of cases of and deaths from yellow fever in selected endemic countries of the Americas.(15/Jan/2008)
In English       PDF(30.98k)  
en español     PDF(43.75k)  

Leishmaniasis: Guía operativa para el control en Bolivia
Esta guía operativa fue producida por el Ministerio de Salud y Deportes para la atención de la leishmaniasis y los servicios sanitarios correspondentes.(31/Dec/2007)
en español     Guía operativa  

Neglected Tropical Diseases: Innovative and Intensified Disease Management
This brochure tells how pro-poor and pro-active solutions against neglected tropical diseases can contribute the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It focuses on specific diseases where cost-effective tools are not available: Buruli ulcer, Chagas, Cholera (and other diarrheal diseases), Leishmaniasis, and Yaws.(31/Dec/2007)
In English       WHO  

PAHO/WHO Preparatory Meeting on Epidemiological Data Needed to Plan Elimination of Schistosomiasis in the Caribbean (St. George, Grenada, 13–14 December 2007)
Schistosomiasis or snail fever, a neglected parasitic disease affecting the poor, remains endemic in parts of Brazil, Venezuela, and the Caribbean. The primary objective of this meeting was to meet and interchange with national authorities and schistosomiasis specialists to gauge the level of interest and estimate the time frame and resources needed for elimination of Schistosomiasis in the Caribbean. It covered surveillance, treatment, ecological and epidemiological issues. This page contains a summary, the presentations, and the final report.(14/Dec/2007)
In English       HTML(9.18k)  
en español     HTML(10.17k)  

Annual Malaria Cases and Deaths in the Americas, 1998-2006
This 46-slide PowerPoint presentation with Excel charts graphically presents the morbidity and mortality trends on malaria in the Region and in its 21 endemic countries. Based on the 2006 reports from countries, total malaria cases in the Americas have decreased by 20% between the years 2000 and 2006. During the same time period, 4 countries had a reduction of >75%, 4 with >50 to <75% decrease, and 7 others with <50% reduction. However, 6 nations in the Region continue to have increases in their annual number of malaria cases. The regional reduction in malaria mortality has decreased by nearly 70%. Eighteen member PAHO member states continue to be malaria free.(19/Nov/2007)
In English       PDF(333.26k)  

Update of American Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis Control and Research: Final Report (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 6–7 November 2007)
The objective of this meeting was to set up an information platform on control and research gaps in American Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis in order to establish a road map for academia and control programs. This 176-page report contains a series of technical papers in two parts: (I) Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), with 20 short papers and abstracts; and (II) Leishmaniasis, with 8.(7/Nov/2007)
In English       PDF(1965.27k)  

CSP27.R11: Malaria in the Americas
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for the fight against malaria in the Americas. It also instituted the annual celebration of Malaria Day in the Americas.(4/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R11  
en español     CSP27.R11  
en Français    CSP27.R11  
em Português CSP27.R11  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

Global Plan to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2008–2015
The WHO Global Plan to Combat NTDs Global Plan has been formulated according to the following key principles: the right to health; existing health systems as a setting for interventions; a coordinated, multi-disease response by the health system; integration and equity; and intensified control of diseases alongside pro-poor policies. This page contains the executive summary plus a link to the full text.(24/Aug/2007)
In English       HTML(8.99k)  
en español     HTML(10.88k)  
en Français    HTML(10.49k)  
em Português HTML(11.18k)  

CSP27/9-- Malaria in the Americas: Progress Report
This document from the 2007 Pan American Sanitary Conference is the official status report on malaria in the Region of the Americas, which led to the corresponding resolution on the same topic.(8/Aug/2007)
In English       PDF(257.76k)  
en español     CSP27/9  
en Français    CSP27/9  
em Português CSP27/9  

Leishmaniasis: The Disease and Its Epidemiology
This WHO fact sheet provides summary information on the vector and the various forms of leishmaniasis, with photos.(16/Jul/2007)
In English       WHO  

The International Dengue Task Force: Dedicated to the Fight against Dengue
This task force was put into place to implement the new Integrated Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Dengue. This page describes how the group was formed, what it proposes to do, and its different components.(12/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(5.6k)  
en español     HTML(5.77k)  

Leishmaniasis: 2007 Update
This one-page fact sheet summarizes the current situation of leishmaniasis in the Americas, the challenges faced, and the steps being taken to deal with them.(12/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(4.97k)   WORDL(694.27k)   PDF(144.13k)  
en español     HTML(5.33k)   WORDL(653.31k)   PDF(123.36k)  

PAHO Regional Program on Leishmaniasis: Fighting a Neglected Tropical Disease Affecting the Poorest of the Poor
This page describes the challenges faced by the Regional Program on Leishmaniasis in fighting one of the most neglected of tropical diseases that affects the most neglected populations, as well as describing its main activities and providing summary information on the disease definition and its distribution in the Americas.(12/Jul/2007)
In English       HTML(5.26k)  
en español     HTML(6.1k)  

Neglected Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Hidden Killers of Productivity and Economic Development
This brochure on neglected diseases, especially designed for potential donors, describes the challenges and burden of these diseases--which overwhelmingly affect the poorest and most vulnerable populaltions--and the opportunities for their control and elimination. It complements the program's poster and fact sheet.(26/Jun/2007)
In English       PDF(302.9k)  

Regional Strategic Plan for Malaria in the Americas 2006–2010
The plan to combat malaria over the next five years takes into account the need for continuous efforts to achieve specific goals as well as the reduction of the burden on human health and the negative social and economic effects of the disease among the most affected population groups. It emphasizes the need for access to malaria diagnosis, appropriate treatment, preventive interventions, and sufficient health service coverage--meaning that strategies must be coupled with concrete actions and an enduring commitment.(26/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(6.75k)   PDF(2461.04k)  
en español     HTML(8.24k)  

PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response: Working to Deal with Outbreaks in the Americas
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response, mainly responsible for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, disease outbreak management, implementation of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]), assessment of national surveillance capacity, and related issues.(13/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(3.53k)  
en español     HTML(3.64k)  

Regional Program on Malaria: The Fight against a Major Killer in the Americas
This page provides basic information on the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Malaria, which coordinates technical cooperation with PAHO Member States in the fight against malaria.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(4.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.1k)  

The PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases and its activities to support the Member States in their fight against emerging viral infections of epidemic character.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(2.47k)  
en español     HTML(2.68k)  

Malaria, including Proposal for Establishment of World Malaria Day
This resolution of the Sixtieth World Health Assembly held in May 2007 provides the recommendations made to control the global burden of malaria (Resolution WHA60.18). It constitutes not only the WHO global mandate but also the PAHO mandate for the Americas.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.18  
en español     WHA60.18  
en Français    WHA60.18  

WHA60.18: Malaria, including Proposal for Establishment of World Malaria Day
This resolution from the 60th World Health Assembly in 2007 sets forth the WHO global mandate for malaria and a proposal for an annual World Malaria Day, which PAHO has adopted for the Americas.(23/May/2007)
In English       WHA60.18  
en español     WHA60.18  
en Français    WHA60.18  

Report of the Regional Consultation on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) on Congenital Chagas Disease (CLAP, Montevideo, 17-18 May 2007)
In epidemiological importance, congenital Chagas disease constitutes the third mode of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans. This consultation lays the foundations for information, education, and communication on which to raise consciousness among individuals, families, communities, society at large, professionals, and policy-makers, in order to act in a timely and sustainable way to diagnose and treat newborns infected by T. cruzi. This 12-page report gives an update, 20 recommendations, the list of participants, agenda, and brief bibliography.(18/May/2007)
In English       WORDL(205.31k)   PDF(174.93k)  
en español     WORDL(198.66k)   PDF(178.86k)  
en Français    WORDL(238.08k)   PDF(178.04k)  

PAHO Regional Program on Chagas Disease
This page provides a short description of the PAHO program to fight Chagas disease in the Americas: mission, areas of work, and the four subregional initiatives: CONOSUR for the Southern Cone, IPCA for Central America, IPA for the Andean subregion, and AMCHA for the Amazon basin.(30/Apr/2007)
In English       HTML(3.77k)  
en español     HTML(3.69k)  

2006: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2006 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report and with regional subtotals. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives.(27/Apr/2007)
In English       HTML(34.13k)  

A Turning Point 2007: Report of the Global Partners' Meeting on Neglected Tropical Diseases (Geneva, Switzerland, 19-20 April 2007)
An estimated one billion people--one sixth of the world’s population--are infected with one or more neglected tropical diseases. These diseases are largely ancient infectious diseases that thrive in impoverished settings, especially in the heat and humidity of tropical climates. This meeting of 200 key international partners declared to the world that control of these diseases deserves high priority on the global public health agenda and still greater determination to deliver appropriate health care to the millions of poor people in need.(20/Apr/2007)
In English       WHO  

Buruli Ulcer Disease (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection) (WHO Fact Sheet No. 199)
Buruli ulcer, a disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is one of the most neglected but treatable tropical diseases. The causative organism is from the family of bacteria which causes tuberculosis and leprosy but Buruli ulcer has received less attention than these diseases. Infection leads to extensive destruction of skin and soft tissue with the formation of large ulcers. Patients who are not treated early often suffer long-term functional disability. Early diagnosis and treatment are vital in preventing such disabilities.(31/Mar/2007)
In English       WHO Media Centre  
en español     OMS, Centro de prensa  
en Français    OMS, Centre des médias  

Honduras: Activities to Fight Chagas Disease
This page serves as a resource with links to all online PAHO information on Chagas disease in Honduras and current prevention and control activities currently being carried out there: the subregional initiative, events, missions, educational materials, photos, maps, etc.(14/Mar/2007)
In English       HTML(6.77k)  
en español     HTML(7.79k)  

Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia (CNDR), Departamento de Virología, Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua
Esta hoja informativa brinda información sobre el Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia (CNDR) de Nicaragua y sobre el Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional responsable por diagnosticar casos de dengue. El CDNR es uno de los Centros Colaboradores de la OPS/OMS(7/Mar/2007)
en español     PDF(146.46k)  

Technical Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Chagas Disease
The Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) of El Salvador prepared these guidelines in collaboration with PAHO and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Their objective is to standardize criteria for clinical, entomological, epidemiological, and techno-operational approaches to the disease, as well as the compulsory requirements that must be met by legally authorized professionals and healthcare facilities working in this area. They apply to all healthcare facilities at all levels (primary, secondary, tertiary).(28/Feb/2007)
In English       HTML(4.96k)  
en español     HTML(5.12k)   PDF(1325.3k)   MS-El Salvador  

Annual Evaluation Meeting of the Amazon Network for Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA) (Campos de Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil, 7–10 March 2007)
The objectives of this meeting are to review the progress of the activities of RAVREDA/AMI during the last year and to discuss the implementation of the tools promoted by RAVREDA/AMI in the health services. The RAVREDA Member Countries will meet with the network's sponsors (USAID, CDC, USP, MSH/RPM Plus). French Guiana will be invited to join this year. (6/Feb/2007)
In English       HTML(3.25k)  
en español     HTML(3.62k)  

Instituto Evandro Chagas (Información sobre los Centros Colaboradores de la OPS/OMS y los Laboratorios de Referencia Nacionales de las Américas que trabajan en dengue)
En 2006 el Programa Regional de Dengue mandó dos formularios a todos los Centros Colaboradores OPS/OMS y Laboratorios de Referencia Nacionales que trabajan con dengue y diagnóstico de dengue, uno para una hoja informativa y otro para las actividades laboratoriales. Esta hoja informativa, con vínculo al formulario sobre diagnóstico, brinda una descripción detallada del Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC) en Brasil del punto de vista del dengue.(18/Jan/2007)
en español     PDF(200.83k)  

Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control (3rd ed.)
The objective of this handbook is to ensure the safe and correct application of a residual insecticide to indoor surfaces on which vectors may rest. Indoor residual spraying is extensively used, especially for malaria and Chagas disease vector control. However, vector control programmes frequently lack well-trained field staff to apply the insecticides and to maintain the application equipment. With good skills and quality application equipment, hazards to human health and the environment, as well as financial losses, can be avoided. It can be used as a model to develop training materials in the countries.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       WHOPES  
en español     WHOPES  

Neglected Tropical Diseases: Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission Control
This brochure outlines how preventive chemotherapy can be used to reach the un-reached affected by lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminths, with low-cost tools yielding high payoffs.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       WHO  

Onchocerciasis (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page provides basic information on onchocerciasis (river blindness), an insect-borne disease caused by a parasite Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by blackflies of the species Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is often called “river blindness” because the blackfly that transmits the disease abounds in fertile riverside areas that frequently remain uninhabited for fear of infection--thus making the diseases a serious obstacle to socioeconomic development. O. volvulus is almost exclusively a human parasite. Adult worms live in nodules in a human body where the female worms produce high numbers of first-stage larvae known as microfilariae. They migrate from the nodules to the subepidermal layer of the skin where they can be ingested by blackflies. They further develop in the body of the insect from which more people can be infected. Eye lesions in humans are caused by microfilariae. They can be found in all internal tissues of the eye--except the lens--where they cause eye inflammation, bleeding, and other complications that ultimately lead to blindness.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  
en Français    OMS  

Lymphatic Filariasis (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page offers access to WHO resources on LF: Rarely life-threatening, lymphatic filariasis causes widespread and chronic suffering, disability, and social stigma. It can lead to grotesquely swollen limbs--a condition known as elephantiasis. It is endemic in seven countries of the Americas.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Schistosomiasis (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page provides basic information and access to WHO resources on Schistosomiasis is also known as bilharzia or snail fever. Considered a neglected tropical disease mainly affecting the poor, the disease is often associated with water resource development projects, such as dams and irrigation schemes, where the snail intermediate hosts of the parasite breed.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Chagas Diseases (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page provides basic information and access to WHO resources. Chagas disease, found only in Latin America, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted by insects of the Triatoma species, often through small mammals that act as reservoir hosts.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Malaria (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page offers basic information on malaria and research currently being done on the disease. Malaria is the most important tropical disease, remaining widespread throughout the tropics, but also occurring in many temperate regions. It exacts a heavy toll of illness and death - especially amongst children and pregnant women. It also poses a risk to travellers and immigrants, with imported cases increasing in non-endemic areas. Treatment and control have become more difficult with the spread of drug-resistant strains of parasites and insecticide-resistant strains of mosquito vectors. Health education, better case management, better control tools and concerted action are needed to limit the burden of the disease.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Leishmaniasis (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page offers basic information on leishmaniasis and access to WHO research resources. Leishmania parasites are named after W.B. Leishman, who developed one of the earliest stains of Leishmania in 1901. It is widespread in 22 countries of the Americas. Occurring in several forms, the disease is generally recognized for its cutaneous form which causes non-fatal, disfiguring lesions, although epidemics of the potentially fatal visceral form cause thousands of deaths.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Dengue (TDR Fact Sheet and Research Resource Page)
This page offers basic information and access to WHO research resources on dengue. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) have emerged as a major public-health problem. The primary vector mosquito, in the Americas primarily Aedes aegypti, has spread throughout the tropics and into susceptible human populations in urban areas. The urbanization process has created new breeding grounds for the vector and has hastened the spread of the disease. Vector control has not halted the explosion in transmission and major efforts are underway to implement an integrated multisectoral approach.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (WHO Fact Sheet No. 117)
This official fact sheet offers basic information of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection which in recent years has become a major international public health concern. It is found in tropical and subtropical regions, predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas. Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a potentially lethal complication, was first recognized in the 1950s during the dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand, but today DHF affects most Asian countries and has become a leading cause of hospitalisation and death among children in several of them. Integrated prevention and control efforts are underway in the Region. (20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Schistosomiasis (WHO Fact Sheet No. 115)
This official WHO fact sheet provides basic information on the disease. Among human parasitic diseases, schistosomiasis (sometimes called bilharziasis or bilharzia) ranks second behind malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public-health importance in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is endemic in many developing countries in the Region, mostly infecting the poor living in rural agricultural and periurban areas. Many suffer severe consequences from the disease and many more are symptomatic, mostly children under 14.(20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Yellow Fever (WHO Fact Sheet No. 100)
This official WHO fact sheet offers basic information on the disease. Yellow fever is a viral disease that has caused large epidemics in the Americas. It can be recognized from historic texts stretching back 400 years. Infection causes a wide spectrum of disease, from mild symptoms to severe illness and death. The "yellow" in the name is explained by the jaundice that affects some patients. Although an effective vaccine has been available for 60 years, the number of people infected over the last two decades has increased and has become urbanized, becoming once again a serious public-health issue again. (20/Oct/2006)
In English       WHO  
en Français    OMS  

Neglected Diseases: The Diseases of Poverty
Neglected Diseases strike populations already cripped by poverty and inequity: women, children, indigenous populations, the poor. This bilingual poster, the text of which appears in both HTML and Word in fact-sheet format, outlines the health and economic impact of Neglected Diseases and the current response in terms of prevention and treatment and intersectoral solutions.(10/Oct/2006)
In English       HTML(8.55k)   WORDL(218.62k)   PDF(2786.76k)  
en español     HTML(9.96k)   WORDL(178.69k)   PDF(2786.76k)  

The Burden of Neglected Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean Compared with Some Other Communicable Diseases
This graph makes a case for increased attention to neglected diseases by illustrating their tremendous disease burden as compared to other communicable diseases that receive a higher level of attention from health systems.(10/Oct/2006)
In English       HTML(2.46k)  
en español     HTML(2.69k)  

CD47.R18: Health of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas
Taking note of the existence of inequities in health and access to health care services that affect more than 45 million indigenous people living in the Americas; and because the United Nations Millennium Declaration cannot be reached unless the specific health needs of excluded populations, such as indigenous peoples, are addressed, this resolution of the 47th PAHO Directing Council in 2006 sets for the mandate to take a multicultural approach to include these groups and work towards greater equity and better health for all.(29/Sep/2006)
In English       CD47.R18  
en español     CD47.R18  
en Français    CD47.R18  
em Português CD47.R18  

Conclusions and Recommendations from the Joint IPA-AMCHA Annual Meeting (Quito, Ecuador, 18–20 September 2006)
This joint Meeting constitutes the VIIth Annual Meeting of the Andean Initiative for Chagas Disease Control (IPA) and the IIIrd Annual Meeting of the Initiative for Chagas Disease Surveillance and Prevention in the Amazon Region (AMCHA), where the official government delegates from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela analyzed the current epidemiological situation as well as that of their control programs, arriving at the 30 conclusions and recommendations in this 4-page document.(20/Sep/2006)
In English       PDF(235.46k)  
en español     PDF(237.02k)  
en Français    PDF(236.14k)  
em Português PDF(238.83k)  

Consensus Statement on Prevention of Disability (Consensus Development Conference on the Prevention of Disability [POD], Cebu City, Philippines, 13–16 September 2006)
The objectives of the conference were to discuss POD activities in the context of leprosy and other chronic diseases, such as Buruli ulcer, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes; to agree on basic definitions; to agree on a basic, evidence-based approach to POD that is part of routine case management; to agree on the elements of home-based self-care; to agree on methods of monitoring and reporting POD activities; and to agree on priorities for further clinical and operational research in POD. This page contains the executive summary and access to the 9-page statement in PDF, with specific bibliographical references.(16/Sep/2006)
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XVth Meeting of the Southern Cone Intergovernmental Commision to Eliminate Triatoma infestans and Interrupt the Transmission of Transfusional Trypanosomiasis (INCOSUR-Chagas) (Brasília, Brazil, 6-9 June 2006)
This meeting reviewed the progress made by the six countries making up the initiative, issued a set of recommendations and conclusions, and made various decisions for the coming year. Highlighted was the situational diagnosis for Brazil, which achieved interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi via Triatoma infestans throughout all of the 13 states where the vector is present.(29/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.47k)  
en español     HTML(5.26k)   PDF(690.08k)  

2005: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2005 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report and with regional subtotals.(22/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(33.47k)  

Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.(20/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.91k)  

INCOSUR-Chagas: Southern Cone Initiative to Control and Eliminate Chagas Disease
Created in 1991 by the Ministers of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, with its Technical Secretariat in PAHO, INCOSUR has made significant progress in combatting Chagas disease. This page tells about INCOSUR and offers access to INCOSUR documentation: reports, maps, directories, guides, etc.(9/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(6.65k)  
en español     HTML(7.05k)  

Chagas Disease: Harmonization Model for Inter-Agency Cooperation
Public-health programs have one common characteristic: few resources, which keep them from providing definitive solutions to these problems. The start of this joint effort came about relatively recently, but the results obtained to date permit some optimism in making it possible to foresee the future in positive terms vis-à-vis the resolution of this important health problem. The great challenge is to maintain the sustainability. This page offers a summary and access to the full text in Spanish. (15/Mar/2006)
In English       HTML(6.37k)  
en español     HTML(6.42k)   PDF(8102.62k)  

Proyecto Regional de Control de la Enfermedad de Chagas
Este folleto de 16 páginas describe el proyecto entre la OPS y la Agencia de Cooperación Internacional del Japón (JICA) y sus avances en la subregión centroamericana, con secciones dedicados a El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras y a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM/MDGs).(13/Mar/2006)
en español     HTML(6.92k)   PDF(1772.49k)  

Disease Information, Chagas Disease
This page provides basic information on Chagas disease in the form of a fact sheet with summary information on distribution, causative agent, transmission, symptoms, and prevention and control.(13/Feb/2006)
In English       WHO/TDR  

Parasitic and Neglected Diseases: The PAHO Regional Program
This page describes the activities of PAHO's Regional Program on Parasitic and Neglected Diseases: its mission, areas of work, challenges to be faced and strategies with which to face them. It also provides links to the index pages of the diseases in this group.(9/Feb/2006)
In English       HTML(8.95k)  
en español     HTML(10.12k)  

Strategic Orientation Paper on Prevention and Control of Malaria for National and International Programme Officers Involved in Malaria Control at Country Level (1st ed.)
The objectives of this training exercise are to orient participants on the global and regional Roll Back Malaria (RBM) goals, objectives and targets; and to equip and direct participants with up-to-date intervention strategies and tools for malaria control under different epidemiological settings. This site provides access to the manual for use in the training course.(29/Dec/2005)
In English       HTML(8.44k)  

Frequently Asked Questions about Malaria
This extensive lists of FAQs provides answers to the most common questions on malaria can be found on the site of the WHO Roll Back Malaria Partnership.(28/Dec/2005)
In English       RBM Partnership  

Capacity Development under Program-Based Approaches: LENPA Spring Forum 2005: Synthesis Report (Washington, DC, 25–27 April 2005)
This report synthesizes key ideas and conclusions emerging from above-mentioned forum on strengthening capacities under program-based approaches (PBAs) sponsored by the Learning Network on Program-Based Approaches (LENPA). The page contains a summary, four case studies from Latin America, the full executive summary, and the full-text report.(31/Oct/2005)
In English       HTML(22.23k)   PDF(488.72k)  

Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Americas: 6th Regional Program Managers' Meeting, 5th Regional Program Review Group Meeting (San José, Costa Rica, 25–27 October 2005)
This page offers full conference proceedings (PDF report and all PowerPoint country, group and partner presentations) for the two back-to-back meetings on lymphatic filariasis elimination: the Program Managers Meeting (PPM) and the Regional Program Managers Meeting (RPMM). Here can be found the most up-to-date information available on the status of LF in the seven countries that participated in the meeting (Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil, Guyana, and Suriname).(27/Oct/2005)
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PAHO/MSF Regional Consultation on the Organization and Structure of Health Care for the Sick or Infected by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease) (Montevideo, Uruguay, 13–14 October 2005)
The objectives of this meeting were to define the scope and structure of omedical care; develop alternative and optional care models; outline the care provided to Chagas patients; establish aspects of concern in the areas of pediatric, mother-child, and transfusion care, etc.; define diagnostic needs and scope; establish both the scope and the facilities that patients should have within the health-care systems; define the total panorama of patient availability and access to etiological treatment; plan concepts and frameworks on the cost, impact, and effectiveness of developing a component for Chagas morbidity and care; establish the needs for operational research and for management.(14/Oct/2005)
In English       HTML(17.07k)   PDF(163.42k)  
en español     HTML(17.06k)   PDF(2290.33k)  
en Français    HTML(18.16k)   PDF(153.74k)  

Pedrito y la enfermedad de Chagas
Campaña contra el Chagas. Esta historieta fue diseñada para el proyecto OPS-JICA en El Salvador, junto con el Ministerio de Salud Pública y UNICEF, para educarles a los niños sobre la enfermedad de Chagas en la forma que a la vez los entretiene tanto como cuento que como juego.(12/Oct/2005)
en español     PDF(3271.31k)  

Meeting of National Directors of Epidemiology and Malaria Programs (San José, Costa Rica, 7–10 noviembre 2005)
Participants in this meeting included representatives from 21 endemic countries, PAHO and the WHO Roll Back Malaria Global Partnership. The objectives were to update National Directors of Epidemiology and Malaria Programs in the Americas on the current situation of malaria worldwide and in the Region of the Americas; provide an opportunity for National Malaria Programs to present epidemiological data on the status of malaria in their country; and provide a venue for countries to share experiences, networking and exchange information. This page provides access to all meeting proceedings.(11/Oct/2005)
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en español     HTML(7.16k)  

IInd Regional Meeting of the CDIA-EC Project: Surveillance tools for Triatoma infestans and other triatomines (Santiago, Chile, 6–8 October 2005)
The purposes of this meeting were to support control and surveillance tasks in Chile and Uruguay, with the objective of eliminating T. infestans; develop protocols and models for control/surveillance and research aimed at elimination in the Southern Cone subregion; and recommend tools, methods and operational practices that operate effectively, sensitively, and with adequate applicability, to deal with the new realities of infestation, colonization, and dispersion of triatomines in the household environment (intra-, peri- and extradomiciliary areas). This page offers an introduction as well as the purposes, objectives, recommendations and conclusions of the meeting, along with the list of participants and links to project partners. (8/Oct/2005)
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en español     HTML(13.82k)   PDF(695.12k)  

CD46.R13: Malaria and Internationally Agreed-Upon Development Goals, Including Those Contained in the Millennium Declaration
This resolution from the 46th PAHO Directing Council in 2005 urges Member States to attain the goals of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Initiative as well as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to seek funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), to strengthen capacities and community participation as well as integrated and multisectoral approaches, to establish a Malaria Control Day in the Americas, and to develop vaccines, new insecticides, and more effective drugs to fight malaria, among other mandates.(30/Sep/2005)
In English       CD46.R13  
en español     CD46.R13  
en Français    CD46.R13  
em Português CD46.R13  

Pilot Exercise on Integrated Triatomine Control (Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, 23 September 2005)
The objective of this meeting was to develop an integrated triatomine control model for an endemic area in Mexico. This fact sheet indicates the organization and experts, the conclusions and recommendations, and the commitments made.(23/Sep/2005)
In English       HTML(4.57k)   PDF(43.53k)  
en español     HTML(4.9k)   PDF(43.14k)  

Status of Leprosy in the Region of the Americas
This fact sheet describes and illustrates the current situation for leprosy (Hansen's disease) in the Region of the Americas, in a context of eliminating the disease as a public-health problem and the reduction in its incidence resulting from the use of multidrug therapy (MDT). It contains a table with data from the countries and a map showing leprosy prevalence, as well as a summary of current activities and challenges.(9/Aug/2005)
In English       HTML(12.46k)   PDF(2815.21k)  
en español     HTML(12.83k)   PDF(213.63k)  

Monitoring and Epidemiological Assessment of the Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis at Implemention Unit Level
Since the WHO Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, there has been a need for standardized guidelines on monitoring and epidemiological assessment at implementation unit (IU) level, because this is the level at which the core programmatic operations are conducted. These guidelines are based on current knowledge and understanding of the epidemiological aspects of the disease, as concise as possible but open to particular circumstances.(25/Jul/2005)
In English       PDF(2882.56k)  

IPA: Initiative of the Andean Countries to Control Vectoral and Transfusional Transmission of Chagas Disease
This subregional initiative provides a the space in which each participating country took on commitments aimed at meeting the objectives of eliminating vector-borne and transfusion transmission of American trypanosomiasis in the Andean Region. (20/Jun/2005)
In English       HTML(13.59k)  
en español     HTML(14.82k)  

2003: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This document provides tabular data for 2003 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas, by country and subregion and with regional totals, and by week reported. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives. (1/Jun/2005)
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2004: Number of Reported Cases of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion)
This table provides quantitative data for 2004 on the number of cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Americas, by country and subregion by epidemiological week of report and with regional subtotals. This page is routinely updated as new data arrives. (1/Jun/2005)
In English       HTML(32.4k)  

Safety of Pyrethroids for Public Health Use
Pyrethroids are widely used in public health because of their relative safety for humans, high insecticidal potency at low dosages and rapid knock-down effects. WHO has assessed the safety and efficacy of pyrethroids for different applications in vector control, as well as in disinsection of aircrafts. The purpose of this document is to critically review current knowledge on the safety of pyrethroids and whether existing WHO recommendations for pyrethroid applications should be revised or modified. (This review does not consider the use of pyrethroids in space spraying and vapour applications, e.g. in mosquito coils and aerosols.)(31/May/2005)
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Global Insecticide Use for Vector-Borne Disease Control (2nd ed.)
Vector control constitutes an important element in the current global strategy for the control of major vector-borne diseases, and chemical control remains an important element in an integrated approach to vector control. This publication attempts to document the use of insecticides for vector control at the global level concerning the evelopment of guidelines on safe and effective use of insecticides and on resistance management, agreements for international use of insecticides, investment for development of alternatives, and review and formulation of policies for insecticide usage at different levels.(31/May/2005)
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Public Health Pesticide Management Practices by WHO Member States: Report of a Survey, 2003–2004
Survey objectives were to study key features of public health pesticide management practices by WHO Member States; assist national and international organizations in developing activities to address weaknesses in their management practices; and serve as a baseline for monitoring progress in such activities. In the Americas, 14 countries responded comprising 55% of the at-risk population for major vector-borne diseases: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay. The Caribbean Epidemiology Centre / CAREC assisted with data collection and validation.(31/May/2005)
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Guidelines for Laboratory and Field Testing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets
The purpose of this document is to provide specific and standardized procedures and guidelines for testing long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) for personal protection and malaria control. It is intended to harmonize the testing procedures carried out to generate data for registration and labelling of such products by national authorities.(27/May/2005)
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Guidelines on Situation Analysis for Public Health Pesticide Management
The objectives of this 2005 publication by WHOPES, the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, is to provide guidance in the performance of a situation analysis aimed at identifying the weaknesses, strengths and needs for strengthening a country's public health pesticide management practices. It identifies the key steps in the planning process and outlines a methodology for such analysis.(26/May/2005)
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WHA58.2: Malaria Control
Concerned that malaria continues to cause more than one million preventable deaths a year, especially among young children and other vulnerable groups; and that the disease continues to threaten the lives of millions of people in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific; and aware of the goals of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative and the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the 58th World Health Assembly in 2005 established a series of mandates in this resolution to deal with malaria control.(23/May/2005)
In English       WHA58.2  
en español     WHA58.2  
en Français    WHA58.2  

VIth Meeting of the Andean Initiative to Control Chagas Disease (IPA) (Bogotá, Colombia, 5–6 May 2005)
The objective of this meeting was to approach three thematic areas: (a) implementing greater coverage and quality of anti-vectoral activities, according to risk criteria already published by the IPA Technical Advisory Group, taking into account the following: (i) diversity of species, with updated and integrated taxonomy criteria; (ii) interpreting the various epidemiological situations and (iii) the acceptability and viability of the proposals; (b) optimizing management and methodology in blood banks with regard to blood tests, with the goal of eliminating contaminated blood and treating infected individuals detected during testing, within the framework of blood-safety goals; and (c) generating in the member countries a component of morbidity and care for persons infected with or ill from Chagas in an accessible, timely, effective and effecient manner. This page offers the recommendations and decisions plus access to the full-text report in Spanish.(6/May/2005)
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en español     HTML(10.7k)  

Community Participation and Health Education for Dengue Control: A Collaborative Project between PAHO and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
The objective of this project is to strengthen dengue prevention and control in Central American countries through the implementation of public-education and community-participation activities as well as consensus-building for the Central American Comprehensive Plan for Dengue Prevention and Control.(2/May/2005)
In English       HTML(5.53k)  
en español     HTML(5.36k)  

XIVth Meeting of the Intergovernmental Commission of the Southern Cone (INCOSUR) for the Elimination of T. infestans and the Interruption of Transfusional American Trypanosomiasis (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 28–31 March 2005)
This page includes the recommendations of the meeting, which include (a) upcoming advances in Brazil in interruping vectoral transmission of T. cruzi via T. infestans throughout all endemic areas in the country; (2) approval of a patient care component for Chagas victims; (3) a possible regional meeting of subregional initiatives in 2006; and (4) strengthening of partnerships with MSF-Spain, CIDA and Belgian Cooperation.(31/Mar/2005)
In English       HTML(10.48k)  
en español     HTML(10.9k)  

Area Covered by JICA Projects in Central America
This map shows the geographical extent of the collaboration project between PAHO and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for the control of Chagas disease in Central America (within the framework of the subregional initiative of Central American countries, IPCA).(18/Feb/2005)
In English       HTML(2.97k)   PDF(1039.12k)  
en español     HTML(3.04k)   PDF(1000.78k)  

PAHO-JICA Collaboration on Chagas Disease Control in Central America
This page provides a summary of the international partnership between PAHO and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for Chagas control in the Central American countries. Within the framework of the IPCA (Initiative of Central American Countries), the project involves interagency cooperation with various other partners.(17/Feb/2005)
In English       HTML(14.48k)   WORDL(145.92k)   PDF(537.47k)  
en español     HTML(15.64k)   WORDL(135.68k)   PDF(498.19k)  

Distribution of Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata (Central America, 2004)
This map shows the geographical distribution of the two main vectors for Chagas Disease in Central America, R. prolixus and T. dimidiata.(14/Feb/2005)
In English       HTML(2.35k)  
en español     HTML(2.48k)  

Manual para capacitadores sobre la enfermedad de Chagas: Conocimientos generales, prevención y vigilancia con participación comunitaria
Este manual, escrito para presentación en colegios y en reuniones comunitarias, sirve a los capacitadores para enseñar cómo controlar y prevenir la enfermedad de Chagas. Con lo aprendido, podrán orientar a los demás sobre las medidas de vigilancia con participación comunitaria. Esta página brinda una descripción más amplia y acceso a la libreta de aprendizaje, en colores, con ilustraciones que refuerzan el material didáctico.(25/Jan/2005)
en español     HTML(4.32k)   PDF(758.11k)  

EB115.R14: Malaria
Concerned that malaria continues to cause more than one million preventable deaths a year, especially among young children and other vulnerable groups; and that the disease continues to threaten the lives of millions of people in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific; and aware of the goals of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative and the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the WHO Executive Board made a series of recommendations to be taken up at the 58th World Health Assembly in 2005.(24/Jan/2005)
In English       EB115.R14  
en español     EB115.R14  
en Français    EB115.R14  

Sin chinches, no hay Chagas: Chinches picudas, transmisoras de la Enfermedad de Chagas
Este folleto fue diseñado para educarle al público general en forma directa y sencilla, breve y concisa, sobre la enfermedad de Chagas: definición, síntomas, lugares vulnerables, transmisión, prevención y cómo colaborar con las autoridades de Salud para evitar la enfermedad. Esta página brinda el texto del folleto y da acceso al folleto mismo en colores para imprimir y distribuir.(19/Jan/2005)
en español     HTML(7.77k)   PDF(5869.11k)  

¡¡Alerta!! Chinches picudas ...
Afiche producido por el Proyecto para el Control de Chagas para la educación pública: "¡¡Alerta!! 'Chinches picudas' son transmisores de la enfermedad de 'Chagas' que causa problemas de corazón y hasta la muerte. Por eso ¡¡permiten le le rocíen su vivienda!!(19/Jan/2005)
en español     HTML(2.53k)  

¡Se buscan chinches picudas! porque transmiten la Enfermedad de Chagas
Esta herramienta de educación pública, en tamaño de una tarjeta postal, fue el resultado de una colaboración internacional antichagásico centroamericana, para distribución masiva en las zonas endémicas. La meta fue lograr la participación de la comunidad en la lucha contra los dos vectores de la Enfermedad de Chagas, Rhodnius prolixus y Triatoma dimidiata. La tarjeta le enseña a la gente cómo identificar y capturar los chinches y entregarlos a los centros involucrados en actividades de detección, eliminación y tratamiento, al brindar instrucciones pictográficas en seis pasos de forma breve, clara y concisa.(14/Jan/2005)
en español     HTML(3.17k)  

AMCHA: Initiative of the Amazon Countries for Surveillance and Control of Chagas Disease
The delegates of the countries of the Amazon region, participating in the International Workshop on Surveillance and Prevention of Chagas Disease (Manaus, 2004), propose creation of an Initiative of the Amazon Countries for Surveillance and Control of Chagas Disease (AMCHA) to be formally constituted by decision and political agreement of the Ministers of Health.(11/Jan/2005)
In English       HTML(7.88k)  
en español     HTML(8.61k)  
en Français    HTML(9.92k)  
em Português HTML(9.58k)  

Status of Malaria in the Americas, 2004: A Series of Data Tables
This Excel PDF speadsheet offers the latest compiled data for the Region of the Americas on the situation of malaria in the year 2004, with 13 tables containing data for the Region and for up to 21 countries where malaria is endemic. Topic covered include morbidity and mortality, case detection, imported cases, transmission, treatment, laboratory findings, ecological risk, risk groups, program activity, budget, and antimalarial drugs. (last update March 2006)(1/Jan/2005)
In English       PDF(268.63k)  

Malaria in the Countries and Region of the Americas:Time Series Epidemiological Data, 1998–2004
22 presentations with data on the Region and on 21 countries: The charts in each presentation are divided into sections following a standardized format (according to data available), with such generic areas as the malaria burden, morbidity and mortality, malariometric indices (API, AFI, AVI, AMI), trends in case detection and diagnosis, treatment, and resources and financing. (1/Jan/2005)
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Report on Activities and Results of the National Chagas Program (with support from JICA and Pro-Mesas/IRDC, 2004)
With regard to the objective of improving housing as part of the aforementioned National Strategic Plan against Chagas Disease, part of the management objectives of the PNCh is to work with institutions from the health sector devoted to the construction and improvement of rural dwellings, e.g. the Our Roots Program (Nuestras Raíces) of the Honduran Social Investment Fund (Fondo Hondureño de Inversión Social / FHIS), which coordinates its activities with support from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among which are World Vision-Honduras, the Technical Council for the Integral Development of Honduras (COTEDIH), CARE, and the Liorna Foundation in Spain, among others. This page offers a summary, related links, and access to the full-text report in Spanish.(31/Dec/2004)
In English       HTML(9.33k)  
en español     HTML(8.95k)   PDF(1065.14k)  

Update on the Malaria Epidemic in the Dominican Republic (16 December 2004)
Despite an intense search for febrile persons in construction sites, hoteles, and businesses in the tourist areas in Altagracia province, only three new cases have been detected there, thus confirming the success of measures taken. In Hato Mayor, no new cases were detected; nevertheless, house-to-house searches will be conducted to find febrile persons in the affected areas, in order to detect any person with a positive diagnosis who might re-establish transmission. This page contains a data table showing the cumulative cases of malaria for 2004 up to Epidemiological Week 49 (ending 12 December 2004).(17/Dec/2004)
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en español     HTML(15.09k)  

Official Communiqué: Commission of Health and Tourism Guarantees Absolute Malaria Control (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 9 December 2004)
On December 9, 2004, local health authorities in the Dominican Republic issued the following update: Following the completion of the data collection corresponding to Epidemiologic Week (EW) 48 (28 November to 4 December 2004), and according to the data from the Nation Center for Control of Tropical Diseases (Centro Nacional de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales / CENCET), the endemic curve of malaria is within the safe zone. In epidemiological terms, the safe zone signifies that the endemic disease is under control.(9/Dec/2004)
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en español     HTML(3.6k)  

Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Americas: 5th Regional Program Managers' Meeting, 4th Regional Program Review Group Meeting (Paramaribo, Suriname, 26–29 October 2004)
This page offers the complete conference proceedings for both meetings, combined in one volume, with PowerPoint presentations integrated therein. It outlines the progress made in eliminating lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), a dread disease of poverty causing permanent disability and thus constituting a major economic and social burden. Attending the meeting were those countries where the disease is still endemic or close to eradication, where major elimination efforts are underway.(30/Oct/2004)
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Regional Core Health Data System - Indicators Glossary
Definition, technical note, type, measure units, categories, and subcategories for each indicator in the Regional Core Health Data System(26/Oct/2004)
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International Meeting on Surveillance and Prevention of Chagas Disease in the Amazon Region (Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, 19-22 September 2004)
The purpose of this meeting was the implementation of the Intergovernmental Initiative for Surveillance and Control of Chagas Disease in the Amazon Region (AMCHA), focusing on surveillance, prevention and research.(22/Sep/2004)
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Malaria and HIV/AIDS: Interactions and Implications
Malaria and HIV are among the two most important global health problems of our time. Together, they cause more than 4 million deaths per year.There is a growing body of knowledge on the interactions between HIV/AIDS and malaria, with particularly serious consequences for reproductive health. This two-page color flyer summarizes the conclusions of a technical consultation convened by WHO 23–25 June 2004.(25/Jun/2004)
In English       WHO  

PAHO Consultation on Congenital Chagas Disease, Its Epidemiology and Management (Montevideo, Uruguay, 24–25 June 2004, in collaboration with the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development, CLAP)
In this meeting there assembled a select group of researchers, clinicians, and those operating disease-managment programs, mostly from the Southern Cone and with the participation of the Free University of Brussels, Belgium. The objectives were to arrive at and update a situational diagnosis of the disease and its management; to develop guidelines for a management guide; to establish a risk and impact projection on the disease in the Region; and to generate guidelines to regularly and sustainably implement the necessary actions in the countries. This page offers the report with its 14 recommendations, the agenda, and the list of participants. (25/Jun/2004)
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Instrument and Exercise for in vivo Antimalarial Drug-Efficacy Studies (WHO, 2004)
This page offers access to an instrument developed by WHO for analyzing the results of the evaluations of antimalarial drug efficacy. It is being utilized by the teams carrying out this type of study within the framework of PAHO's Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA, from its name in Spanish Red de Vigilancia de la Resistencia a las Drogas Antimaláricas) and USAID's Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI).(14/Jun/2004)
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Generic Protocols and Flow Diagram for in vivo Antimalarial Drug-Efficacy Studies in the Americas
Within the framework of PAHO's Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA) and USAID's Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), three standarized protocolos are being offered to carry out in vivo drug effectiveness studies (as needed) to test the effectiveness of the antimalarials currently being used in different departments/provinces/states of the Amazon countries. This page provides a brief description of the projects and access to the research protocols (including the necessary forms) and, in one case, a flow diagram used in these studies.(1/Jun/2004)
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Yellow Fever: Map Depicting Cases in Proportion to Deaths (South America, 1999–2004)
This map quantitatively depicts cases of yellow fever in proportion to deaths from it, using pie charts per affected area of South America, from 1999 to 2004.(24/May/2004)
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Vth Meeting of the Andean Chagas Initiative (IPA) (Lima, Peru, 6–7 May 2004)
The objectives of this annual IPA meeting were to analyze the situation of Chagas' disease in the countries that form the Andean subregion; define intervention strategies in accordance with entomological, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness criteria; agree on lines of action related to vector control among the countries of the subregion; and strengthen ties and integration among the National Surveillance and Control Programs in the countries of the Andean subregion. This page offers the conclusions, recommendations, and decisions as well as access to the full-text report in Spanish. (7/May/2004)
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XIIIa Reunión de la Comisión Intergubernamental del Cono Sur para la Eliminación de Triatoma infestans y la Interrupción de la Transmisión Transfusional de la Tripanosomiasis Americana (INCOSUR/Chagas) (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 29–31 marzo 2004)
La Comisión Intergubernamental de la iniciativa de INCOSUR/Chagas se reune anualmente para revisar y monitorear la situación de prevención y control de la enfermedad de Chagas en los países del Cono Sur. Está página brinda las recomendaciones y decisiones que resultaron de la XIIIareunión. El informe final aparecerá en breve a través de esta página.(2/Apr/2004)
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Risk Perception and Strategies for Mass Communication on Dengue in the Americas
The general strategy for preventing and controlling dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever is based on promoting behavior changes that lead to incorporating the community in controlling the disease, particularly the vector. In order to achieve this, mass communication programs on dengue should have two primary aims: converting information into practice and encouraging the community to take over prevention and control measures, based on local sanitation structure, community organizations, the roles of different family members, and PAHO's decalogue of key practices. This page offers the abstract of the article with a link to the Pan American Journal of Public Health, where it was published.(28/Feb/2004)
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National Strategic Plan for Chagas Disease, 2003–2007
This page provides an executive summary of the plan and access to the full text. It contains a general introduction where the preparation of the PENCHAGAS is explained and justified, in addition to the strategic-planning process; a situation analysis; a response analysis with regulatory principles and strategies proposed to address this problem, plans of action per strategic area following a logical-framework methodology as well as maps of the areas where work will be carried out with international cooperation from 2003 to 2007; and a bibliography.(14/Feb/2004)
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Estrategia de Gestión Integrada de Prevención y Control del Dengue en Centroamérica y República Dominicana (EGI-CAD)
La Estrategia de Gestión Integrada del Dengue (EGI-Dengue) está basada en un nuevo modelo de trabajo integrado que incluye la promoción de salud y la búsqueda de nuevas asociaciones, se elabora una estrategia de gestión integrada para prevenir y controlar el dengue. Ésta introduce una nueva forma de colaboración técnica: la creación del Grupo Técnico para Dengue (GT-Dengue), grupo de expertos que partiendo del análisis regional se incorporan al trabajo del equipo técnico de los países para elaborar conjuntamente una estrategia nacional de gestión integrada. Esta página brinda un resumen y el informe de cómo se está aplicando la nueva EGI en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana. (30/Jan/2004)
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Status of Malaria in the Americas, 2003: A Series of Data Tables
This Excel PDF speadsheet offers the latest compiled data for the Region of the Americas on the situation of malaria to the start of 2004, with 13 tables containing data for the Region and for up to 21 countries where malaria is endemic. Topic covered include morbidity and mortality, case detection, imported cases, transmission, treatment, laboratory findings, ecological risk, risk groups, program activity, budget, and antimalarial drugs.(1/Jan/2004)
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Sampling Guidelines for Surveillance and Vector-Control Activities Related to Chagas Disease
In monitoring and controlling vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease, there are various situations in which sampling techniques can offer sufficient and reliable information when it comes to guiding action. This means greater operational rationality and cost reduction. The degree of possible selectivity is limited because current techniques used in entomological research offer low sensitivity—above all in situations in which vector density is low or minimal, as tends to happen in advanced control phases. Also in the case of seroprevalence studies used to scale the problem or performance auditing, it is not justifiable to include the entire population. These are the reasons justifying the proposal for and production of these Sampling Guidelines for Chagas disease surveillance and vector control. This page offers a summary in English and access to the full text in Spanish and Portuguese.(31/Dec/2003)
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Assessment and Monitoring of Antimalarial Drug Efficacy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated falciparum Malaria
The primary goal of this protocol is to provide guidance in obtaining the minimum essential information about the clinical and parasitological response to antimalarial drugs among populations at greatest risk of severe morbidity or mortality due to malaria. Considerable emphasis has been placed on maintaining as much simplicity and practicality as possible. Using this protocol, programmes lacking access to substantial financial resources or to state-of-the-art laboratory analysis—most often obtained through collaborative links with medical research institutions-should nonetheless be able to produce the information needed to ensure the best malaria treatment for the people living in their country. PAHO recently adapted this protocol for use in the Americas (links contained on this page, along with access to the full-text WHO protocol).(31/Dec/2003)
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Informe final: Taller Técnico de Estudio sobre Rhodnius pallescens, su Vigilancia y Control (Ciudad Panamá, Panamá, 16–17 septiembre 2002)
Esta página brinda el informe completo (42 pp) sobre R. pallescens, el vector principal para enfermedad de Chagas en Panamá, con estudios sobre el insecto, su epidemiología y entomología, y conclusiones y recomendaciones. También hay presentaciones especiales del Perú sobre R. ecuatoriensis y una contribución del Ecuador.(14/Nov/2003)
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Informe final: XIIa Reunión de la Comisión Intergubernamental del Cono Sur para la Eliminación de Triatoma infestans y la Interrupción de la Transmisión Transfusional de la Tripanosomiasis Americana (INCOSUR/Chagas) (26-28 marzo 2003)
Este documento (159 pp, PDF, mas un anexo en forma de una presentación en Powerpoint) se brinda en texto completo de la reunión de Santiago de Chile, por partes. Se incluyen--además de las recomendaciones y decisiones, antecedentes--los informes de la situación general y la de los países, y actualizaciones sobre la iniciativa en Centroamérica.(4/Nov/2003)
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Essential Leishmaniasis Maps
This series of maps shows the worldwide distribution of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the 28 surveillance centers for Leishmania/HIV co-infection, the 34 countries reporting it, and the countries where 90% of all cases occur.(31/Oct/2003)
In English       WHO  

Reducing the Burden of Preventable Diseases Among the Poor: Onchocerciasis and Filariasis
This subsection in Charting a Future for Health in the Americas: Quadrennial Report of the Director, 2002 Edition, describes the Organization's efforts in support of the regional initiative to eliminate Onchoceriasis and Filariasis from the region.(17/Oct/2003)
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Informe Final: VIa Reunión de la Comisión Intergubernamental de la Iniciativa de los Países de Centro América para la Interrupción de la Transmisión Vectorial y Transfusional de la Enfermedad de Chagas (IPCA) (Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 8–10 octubre 2003)
La VIa Reunión de la Comisión Técnica Intergubernamental se plantea la necesidad de buscar los mecanismos que le den sostenibilidad al proceso para alcanzar la meta de eliminación de la transmisión vectorial y transfusional, fijada para el año 2010 e incorporar el componente de tratamiento etiológico de la infección reciente en población menor de 15 años de áreas endémicas intervenidas como un objetivo colateral de la IPCA en vista de los avances de control de la transmisión vectorial. Esta página brinda el resumen y las recomendaciones y acceso al informe en texto completo.(10/Oct/2003)
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Practical Guide for in vivo Antimalarial Drug-Efficacy Studies in the Americas (RAVREDA-AMI, revised version, October 2003)
Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs is one of the most serious challenges facing national malaria control programs in the Americas. While in vivo drug-efficacy studies do not require sophisticated technology, they are not simple to conduct correctly. They require a well-trained and experienced clinical and laboratory team that closely follows the study protocol. The purpose of this guide, which is based on recent experiences with antimalarial drug efficacy studies in South America, was to complement to the WHO guidelines and standardized protocols. It is hoped that this guide, together with the generic protocols, will contribute to the successful implementation of in vivo studies and a surveillance system for antimalarial drug resistance in the Americas.(3/Oct/2003)
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Southern Cone Workshop on Chagas Disease: Conceptualization of Epidemiological Surveillance (Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2003)
Epidemiological surveillance is understood to be a set of actions that are carried out both regularly and continually, that provide enough of the necessary information for timely intervention through adequate means of prevention and control. With Chagas disease, epidemiological surveillance needs to take into consideration both entomological (vectoral) surveillance and non-vectoral surveillance. The objective of this workshop was to incorporate into the INCOSUR-Chagas initiative a system of evolving instruments, strategies, and results of the surveillance systems that have been implemented in each country, as can be seen in the report that can be accessed via this page.(30/Sep/2003)
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Resolution CD44.R9: Dengue
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003 sets forth the mandate for the struggle against dengue in the Americas.(26/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R9  
en español     CD44.R9  
en Français    CD44.R9  
em Português CD44.R9  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

An Update on Quality Assurance and Procurement through WHO for Improving Access to Artemisinin-based Combination Treatments (ACTs) for Malaria
Consistent with WHO recommendations, malaria endemic countries which are experiencing high levels of resistance to currently used antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) are changing treatment policies from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs). This four-page update provides the latest information on these pharmaceutical developments for treating P. falciparum malaria.(28/Jul/2003)
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Encuesta de Percepción, Dengue 2000 (Informe ejecutivo)
Este informe de 34 páginas está basado en tres talleres subregionales realizados en Paraguay, Perú y Panamá durante el año 2000 como parte de las actividades estratégicas de comunicación social y participación comunitaria del Programa de Dengue de la OPS. La página brinda un resumen de la encuesta, acceso al informe completo, y enlaces a otros sitios relacionados a comunicación social y dengue.(30/Jun/2003)
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Warning!!!!Two new varieties of fake artesunate are being sold in mainland Asia ...
This notice, distributed at the request of WHO and a product of its Roll Back Malaria collaborative efforts in Asia, meant to be posted in health-care facilities and downloadable as such, provides the key features to aid in identifying fake Guilin Pharma artesunate blisterpack holograms, as opposed to the genuine blisterpacks. Blisterpacks with fake holograms contain no artesunate and are therefore potentially lethal when used to treat P. falciparum malaria. These counterfeit drugs have the potential of worldwide distribution, hence WHO's request to publish this announcement on the PAHO web to warn the Americas of this risk.(24/Jun/2003)
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Framework for a Regional Program for Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis in the Americas (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2–6 June 2003) (DRAFT)
An estimated 30% of the Latin American population suffers from soil-transmitted helminth infection. Ensuring the effective control of soil-transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in the Americas is a challenge that cannot be put off--hence, this gathering of professionals committed to pooling their efforts and eradicating these parasitic diseases that afflict the most vulnerable populations. This page contains the situation analysis for Latin America and access to the 25-page full text.(6/Jun/2003)
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V Reunión de la Comisión Intergubernamental (CI) de la Iniciativa Andina de Control de la Transmisión Vectorial y Transfusional de Chagas (Guayaquil, Ecuador, 7-9 mayo 2003)
Con la finalidad de reactivar la Iniciativa Andina de Control de Chagas, se procedió a convocar esta Reunión de delegados nacionales de Perú, Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela, con Secretaría Técnica de de OPS. Los objetivos eran trazar prioridades de control antivectorial en la subregión y en los países, delinear estrategias y metodologías de acción, y conjuntar esfuerzos nacionales par la acción internacional de control de Chagas. Esta página ofrece un resumen, las recomendaciones e información sobre los participantes.(9/May/2003)
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Report: Workshop on Dengue Burden Studies (Washington, DC, 5-7 November 2002)
The objective of this meeting was to review, refine and prepare study proposals to define the epidemiologic, economic and social burden of dengue illnesses. Expected outcomes are several finished country-level budgeted proposals for the study of the burden of dengue. Studies include Asia and Latin America. This page offers the full-text conference report (in small easy-to-view segments), with executive summary, report proper, notes and guidelines, a graph, contact information of participants, etc. (2/Apr/2003)
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XII Reunión de la Comisión Intergubernamental del Cono Sur para la Eliminación de Triatoma infestans y la Interrupción de la Transmisión Transfusional de la Tripanosomiasis Americana (INCOSUR/Chagas) (Santiago de Chile, 26-28 marzo 2003)
Esta XII Reunión de INCOSUR/Chagas tuvo por objetivo el revisar la situación subregional, desarrollar estrategias, y seguir con la lucha contra la enfermedad. Este año hubo una mesa de trabajo especial focalizada en la transmisión transfusional. Esta página brinda las recomendaciones generales y del grupo transfusional, las decisiones, un resumen, y la lista de los que participaban en la reunión.(28/Mar/2003)
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Pan American Health Organization's Proposed Contribution to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) / Latin America and Caribbean Bureau's Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI): Project Proposal and Workplans for Years 2 & 3 (March 2003)
This proposal describes the activities and related budget for the AMI project to be implemented over the two-year period of 2003-2004 and to be completed by September 30, 2004. It provides access to the workplans for regional and national activities as well as for the organizations working together in the project. The page provides access to a summary, the full-text report, and the individual workplans.(11/Mar/2003)
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Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control
This WHO guide is meant to instruct pest-control workers on how to safely and effectively administer residual insecticides. It was published in 2002 by WHO Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication as part of the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, to provide uniform international standards for administration of pesticides to eliminate insects/vectors that transmit disease in an indoor setting. This summary links to the full-text WHO report.(31/Dec/2002)
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Guía de Evaluación de los procesos de control de triatomineos y del control de la transmisión transfusional de T. cruzi (Montevideo, Uruguay, 2002)
La enfermedad de Chagas afecta en la Región de las Américas a 18 millones de personas, entre infectados por T. cruzi y enfermos en etapas sintomáticas o paucisintomáticas de la afección. Otros 40 millones viven en áreas rurales o suburbanas bajo el riesgo de contraer esta parasitosis. El presente documento (disponible por partes en PDF) es un guía opcional, para desarrollar estos trabajos, basada en la experiencia de más de treinta evaluaciones internacionales desarrolladas en los seis países del Cono Sur, con equipos técnicos internacionales e interdisciplinarios. Se incluyen los formularios.(31/Dec/2002)
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Progress Report: Chagas Disease Vector Control Project, Republic of Guatemala (2000-2002)
This report provides details on progress made in the prevention and control of Chagas Disease in Guatemala: outcomes, financial input, cost-benefit analysis, advances in regional cooperation and other areas, and recommendations. The page provides a summary and access to the full text. It was collaboratively produced by PAHO, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) of Guatemala.(31/Dec/2002)
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Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Americas: Regional Program Managers' Meeting (Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, 4-6 September, 2002)
Filariasis elimination began in China in 1950s as an agricultural/economic issue. The success of its program relied on a sustained government commitment, and collective efforts allowed China to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public-health problem. The Americas Region could very well be the first to reach the elimination goal, with recent breakthroughs clearly indicating this as feasible. This page offers a summary of the meeting and access to the full-text conference report in bookmarked PDF. (6/Sep/2002)
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Hurrying Toward Disaster?
This article describes how new, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of globalization, population growth and alterations to ecological systems can affect global health, and how we must prepare to combat them. (23/Aug/2002)
In English       Perspectives in Health  
en español     Perspectivas de Salud  

Iniciativa Intergubernamental del Cono Sur para la eliminación de Triatoma infestans y la interrupción de la transmisión de la tripanosomiasis americana transfusional: Once años de prevención, control y cooperación entre países
Este informe de 7 páginas, acompañada por una presentación de 13 diapositivas, brinda un resumen de los resultados concretos de once años de cooperación entre países por parte de la Comisión Intergubernamental del Cono Sur para el control y la eliminación de la enfermedad de Chagas.(1/Jul/2002)
en español     PDF(384.53k)   PowerPoint  

WHA55.17: Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Prevention and Control
This resolution from the World Health Assembly is the foundation for PAHO's mandate in the struggle against dengue in the Americas.(18/May/2002)
In English       WHA55.17  
en español     WHA55.17  
en Français    WHA55.17  

Relevamiento de insecticidas de control de la enfermedad de Chagas del Cono Sur de América: Datos básicos (2a ed., marzo de 2002)
Esta nueva edición contiene información básica, sobre estos insumos de control, que ha sido señalada como útil y de interés por los Directores de los Programas Nacionales de Control. Se organiza por insecticida, nombre comercial, firma productora, concentración, formulación, dosis por m2, peso por carga en gramas, y costo.(31/Mar/2002)
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Desafíos Futuros para la Comunicación Social en Programas de Prevención y Control del Dengue y de la FHD: Reunión Técnica de Comunicación Social--Carta de Guayaquil, Informe Final (27 febrero-1 marzo 2002)
Actualmente gran parte de la población de los países de la Subregión Andina presentan el riesgo de desarrollar el dengue y dengue hemorrágico debido a los altos índices de infestación por Aedes aegypti y a la circulación de varios serotipos del virus del dengue. Esta reunión se llevó a cabo para dar frente a estos nuevos desafíos y desarrollar estrategias para combatir este nuevo fenómeno. Esta página brinda un resumen en HTML y acceso al texto completo en PDF.(1/Mar/2002)
en español     HTML(9.59k)  

Grupo de Trabajo OPS para Consulta en Planificación, Operativa, Estrategia y Evaluación de Etapas Avanzadas del Control Antivectorial en Enfermedad de Chagas (Montevideo, Uruguay, 13-14 noviembre 2001)
Para un programa nacional de control de Chagas, un estado avanzado de control, es aquel donde se ha logrado esta meta de interrupción. Hoy esta situación es una realidad en la totalidad o en áreas parciales de su territorio para cuatro países de la Iniciativa Chagas del Cono Sur: Uruguay (1997), Chile (1999), Brasil (2000) y Argentina (2001). Es necesario entonces preparar a los Programas Nacionales de Chagas para posicionarse y actuar en escenarios de baja prevalencia, con nula ó mínima transmisión, creando condiciones de sustentabilidad adecuada, eficaz, eficiente y oportuna, a los efectos de desarrollar la imprescindible vigilancia. Esta página brinda acceso a la colección de doce trabajos (introducción, 10 artículos, recomendaciones), cada uno en archivo PDF.(14/Nov/2001)
en español     HTML(6.73k)  

CD43.R4: Dengue and Dengue Hemorraghic Fever
Resolution adopted during the 43rd Directing Council, Washington, DC, 26 September 2001, to establish the PAHO mandate for combatting dengue and DHF.(26/Sep/2001)
In English       PDF(93.27k)  
en español     PDF(97.94k)  
en Français    PDF(93.53k)  
em Português PDF(104.03k)  

Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Americas: 2nd Regional Program Managers' Meeting (Georgetown, Guyana, 20-22 August 2001)
This second meeting focused on country progress in the elimination of LF (elephantiasis); the report contains country reports from the seven endemic countries participating (Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago) and plans of action for the coming year. This page contains the 39-page full-text report.(22/Aug/2001)
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CE128.R13 - Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Resolution adopted during the 128th Executive Committee in Washington, DC, June 2001. It lays the foundation for the PAHO mandate for dengue.(28/Jun/2001)
In English       PDF(97.07k)  
en español     PDF(98.2k)  
en Français    PDF(96.36k)  
em Português PDF(105.16k)  

Reunión de Ministros de los Países Andinos y Cuba para la Prevención y Control del Dengue (Guayaquil, Ecuador, 7-8 de junio de 2001)
De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), dos quintas partes de la población mundial vive en riesgo de ser infectada por dengue y más de 100 países han sido afectados por epidemias de dengue o fiebre hemorrágica de dengue (FHD). La OMS estima que anualmente ocurren más de 50 millones de casos de dengue y dengue hemorrágico; 500.000 casos hospitalizados y 20.000 defunciones. El 95% de los casos son niños; las tasas de ataque llegan hasta 64 por 1.000 habitantes. El control de la enfermedad es costoso y las epidemias ocasionan un importante impacto negativo en el desarrollo socioeconómico de los países.(7/Jun/2001)
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Chagas Disease Vector Control Project in Guatemala: Progress Report, January-May 2001
The year 2000 marked the implementation of the Chagas Disease Vector Control Project, whose general objective is to eliminate transmission of the disease in Guatemala by 2010 and whose specific objective is to interrupt vector-borne transmission in eight Health Districts. Activities are carried out by the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MSPAS), by means of its Vector-Borne Disease Program, and strengthened by support from the Japanese government through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), working in coordination with the University of San Carlos of Guatemala (USAC), Del Valle University of Guatemala (UVG)/CDC-MERTUG, PAHO/WHO, the European Union-APRESAL, UNICEF and local NGOs. This page summarizes the activities and achievements during the period and offers access to the full-text report in Spanish (36 pp, PDF). (31/May/2001)
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WHA54.19: Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections
In May 2001, the World Health Assembly passed this resolution to deal with schistosomiasis (snail fever) and geohelminth infections as a public health problem. It constitutes the PAHO mandate for the Americas.(22/May/2001)
In English       WHA54.19  
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X Reunión de la Comisión Intergubernamental para la Eliminación de T. infestans y la Interrupción de la Tripanosomiasis Americana Transfusional (Montevideo, Uruguay, 26-28 marzo 2001)
Este informe (disponible en archivos PDF) constituye un libro con secciones separadas sobre la situación en cada país del Cono Sur además de Colombia y Nicaragua; más de 40 cuadros, mapas y figuras; evaluaciones de los países; secciones sobre laboratorios y bancos de sangre y sobre la resistencia a insecticidas; y recomendaciones de la Comisión y su cumplimiento hasta ahora.(28/Mar/2001)
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Roll Back Malaria in Meso America: Report of the Meeting Held in the Dominican Republic with the Participation of Central American Countries, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic (San Pedro de Macorís, 20-24 November 2000)
The main themes of this meeting were to introduce the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative in Meso America, review the current malaria situation and prepare country work plans. This page contains access to the full-text technical report, including country data and plans organized separately by country, 16 color maps and graphs, subregional and national conclusions and recommendations, and the list of participants (all downloadable in PDF).(24/Nov/2000)
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CD42.R15: Roll Back Malaria in the Region of the Americas
15th resolution adopted by the 42nd PAHO Directing Council in 2000 on the WHO RBM initiative and its application in the Americas.(29/Sep/2000)
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Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Americas: Report, First Regional Program Managers Meeting (Dominican Republic, 9-11 August 2000)
The Pan American Health Organization /World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), in its commitment to promote and support the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Americas, hosted and co-sponsored this meeting together with the PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other key partners. Key issues focused on the implementation of a Regional Program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the Americas. This page offers access to the full-text report, including country data.(8/Aug/2000)
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CD41.R15: Strengthening Blood Banks in the Region of the Americas
On pages 26-28 of this final report of the 41st PAHO Directing Council in 1999, you will find Resolution 15 on strengthening blood banks in the Americas to prevent disease transmitted by blood transfusion, as is the case with transfusional Chagas disease. This resolution constitutes the PAHO mandate to combat transfusional transmission of Chagas.(1/Oct/1999)
In English       CD41.R15  
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em Português CD41.R15  

WHA52.11: Roll Back Malaria
This resolution from the 52nd World Health Assembly in 1999 recognizes the global burden of malaria is a challenge to human development and a significant cause of poverty and human suffering, particularly in the poorest nations of the world, and lays down a series of mandates on how to approach this problem through integrated and unified efforts.(24/May/1999)
In English       WHA52.11  
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WHA51.14: Elimination of Transmission of Chagas Disease
In 1998, the 51st World Health Assembly passed this resolution to interrupt the transmission of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in the Americas. It constitutes the WHO mandate and was adopted by PAHO for the Americas and implemented through four subregional initiatives (AMCHA, IPCA, IPA, and INCOSUR).(16/May/1998)
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Tratamiento etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas
Este documento contiene las conclusiones de un consulta técnica realizada en Brasil. Se convocó a investigadores de varios países de América Latina para que informaran sus experiencias y para colaborar en la elaboración de las recomendaciones pertinentes, que se encuentran al final de esta publicación.(28/Apr/1998)
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Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control (2nd ed.)
This second edition of the original WHO guide on dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is designed for widespread use among health practitioners, laboratory and vector-control personnel, and public-health officials. It is a concise reference with practical information on dengue and DHF with updated information on laboratory diagnosis and vector surveillance and control, integrating the work of international experts and the results of global meetings.(31/Dec/1997)
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WHA50.29: Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis as a Public Health Problem
At the 50th World Health Assembly in May 1997, the WHO Executive Board set forth the global mandate for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) as a public health problem, which PAHO adopted for the Americas.(13/May/1997)
In English       PDF(3174.38k)   WHO  
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Hemispheric Plan to Expand and Intensify Efforts to Combat Aedes aegypti: Report
The task force analyzed the factors leading to success that were present in the initial eradication campaigns in the Region, as well as those that had led to the failure of these efforts, resulting in the reinfestation of countries that had achieved eradication.(11/Apr/1997)
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Manual on Visceral Leishmaniasis Control
This manual is designed to provide a usable summary of the common practicalities of dealing with VL. To use the manual, simply turn to the section of interest. This page offers the full-text e-book in PDF, divided into chapters for easy reference.(31/Dec/1996)
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Epidemiología y control de la leishmaniasis en las Américas, por país o territorio
En esta publicación se presentan los datos disponibles sobre la epidemiología y el control de la leishmaniasis en las Américas, por país y territorio. Los principales aspectos que se tratan son los siguientes: los parásitos, los vectores comprobados y sospechosos, los reservorios comprobados y sospechosos, la distribución geográfica, la gravedad de la enfermedad, los facotres socioculturales y económicos y las principales actividades de control. (Cuaderno Técnico No. 44, 1996)(31/Dec/1996)
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CD35.14: Eradication/Elimination of Certain Diseases from the Region
This resolution from the PAHO Directing Council sets forth the mandate for the eradication and elimination on onchocerciais (river blindness), Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis) through blood transfusion, and leprosy (Hansen's disease) from the Americas.(30/Sep/1991)
In English       CD35.R14  
en español     CD35.R14