West Nile Virus

For more information, visit the West Nile Virus Page of the Disease Prevention and Control Area of the Pan American Health Organization.

   Technical Documents


Technical Documents

CD48/13 - Integrated Vector Management: A Comprehensive Response to Vector-borne Diseases
CD48/13Integrated Vector Management: A Comprehensive Response to Vector-borne Diseases(14/Aug/2008)
In English       PDF(68.03k)  
en español     PDF(71.64k)  
en Français    PDF(72.58k)  
em Português PDF(68.46k)  

International Health Regulations (IHR)
The International Health Regulations are an international legal instrument that covers measures for preventing the transnational spread of infectious diseases. The newly adopted IHR (2005) has as purpose and scope “to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade”. This page provides a detailed description and information on progress of its implementation, plus relevant links.(24/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(6.76k)  
en español     HTML(17.04k)  

Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO
This page describes the PAHO Technical Area for Health Surveillance and Disease Prevention and Control(HSD), its mission and objectives, what it does in terms of projects and activities. It contains links to the four technical groups and the Pan American Center under its umbrella. Note: Prior to June 2006, the Area was named Disease Prevention and Control.(3/Jun/2008)
In English       HTML(5.65k)  
en español     HTML(6.44k)  

RIMSA 15: Inter-American Meeting at Ministerial Level on Health and Agriculture (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11–12 June 2008)
Comprehensive new site: PAHO will once again hold its biennial meeting where ministers of health and agriculture discuss common concerns related to animal diseases, diseases transmitted to human by animals, and agricultural/livestock production and food safety. This year's theme is Agriculture and Health: Alliance for Equity and Rural Development in the Americas.(19/May/2008)
In English       PANAFTOSA  
en español     PANAFTOSA  
em Português PANAFTOSA  

CSP27.R10: Regional Policy and Strategy for Ensuring Quality of Health Care, Including Patient Safety
This resolution from the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2007 sets forth the PAHO mandate for providing effective, safe, efficient, accessible, appropriate, and satisfactory care for users, recognizing that policies are needed in the health sector that will impact the health care continuum, foster citizen involvement, and promote a culture of quality and safety in health care institution.(3/Oct/2007)
In English       CSP27.R10  
en español     CSP27.R10  
en Français    CSP27.R10  
em Português CSP27.R10  

PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response: Working to Deal with Outbreaks in the Americas
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Epidemic Alert and Response, mainly responsible for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, disease outbreak management, implementation of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]), assessment of national surveillance capacity, and related issues.(13/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(3.53k)  
en español     HTML(3.64k)  

The PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases
This page describes the mission and areas of work of the PAHO Regional Program on Viral Diseases and its activities to support the Member States in their fight against emerging viral infections of epidemic character.(12/Jun/2007)
In English       HTML(2.47k)  
en español     HTML(2.68k)  

Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control (3rd ed.)
The objective of this handbook is to ensure the safe and correct application of a residual insecticide to indoor surfaces on which vectors may rest. Indoor residual spraying is extensively used, especially for malaria and Chagas disease vector control. However, vector control programmes frequently lack well-trained field staff to apply the insecticides and to maintain the application equipment. With good skills and quality application equipment, hazards to human health and the environment, as well as financial losses, can be avoided. It can be used as a model to develop training materials in the countries.(31/Dec/2006)
In English       WHOPES  
en español     WHOPES  

Communicable Disease Prevention and Control at PAHO: Aims, Strategies and Lines of Action
This page summarizes the mission, objectives, strategies and lines of action of the PAHO Communicable Disease Unit and describes what it hopes to accomplish through technical cooperation.(20/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(5.57k)  
en español     HTML(5.91k)  

Veterinary Public Health at PAHO
This page provides general information on PAHO's activities in the area of veterinary public health and its strategies to face current issues and challenges involving zoonoses, foodborne diseases and food safety. It also provides information and links for the Veterinary Public Health Unit, newly relocated to its regional center in Brazil, and to international partners.(15/Jun/2006)
In English       HTML(13.31k)  
en español     HTML(14.53k)  

Global Insecticide Use for Vector-Borne Disease Control (2nd ed.)
Vector control constitutes an important element in the current global strategy for the control of major vector-borne diseases, and chemical control remains an important element in an integrated approach to vector control. This publication attempts to document the use of insecticides for vector control at the global level concerning the evelopment of guidelines on safe and effective use of insecticides and on resistance management, agreements for international use of insecticides, investment for development of alternatives, and review and formulation of policies for insecticide usage at different levels.(31/May/2005)
In English       HTML(3.99k)  

Safety of Pyrethroids for Public Health Use
Pyrethroids are widely used in public health because of their relative safety for humans, high insecticidal potency at low dosages and rapid knock-down effects. WHO has assessed the safety and efficacy of pyrethroids for different applications in vector control, as well as in disinsection of aircrafts. The purpose of this document is to critically review current knowledge on the safety of pyrethroids and whether existing WHO recommendations for pyrethroid applications should be revised or modified. (This review does not consider the use of pyrethroids in space spraying and vapour applications, e.g. in mosquito coils and aerosols.)(31/May/2005)
In English       HTML(5.06k)  

Public Health Pesticide Management Practices by WHO Member States: Report of a Survey, 2003–2004
Survey objectives were to study key features of public health pesticide management practices by WHO Member States; assist national and international organizations in developing activities to address weaknesses in their management practices; and serve as a baseline for monitoring progress in such activities. In the Americas, 14 countries responded comprising 55% of the at-risk population for major vector-borne diseases: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay. The Caribbean Epidemiology Centre / CAREC assisted with data collection and validation.(31/May/2005)
In English       HTML(5.83k)  

Guidelines for Laboratory and Field Testing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets
The purpose of this document is to provide specific and standardized procedures and guidelines for testing long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) for personal protection and malaria control. It is intended to harmonize the testing procedures carried out to generate data for registration and labelling of such products by national authorities.(27/May/2005)
In English       HTML(6.14k)  

Guidelines on Situation Analysis for Public Health Pesticide Management
The objectives of this 2005 publication by WHOPES, the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, is to provide guidance in the performance of a situation analysis aimed at identifying the weaknesses, strengths and needs for strengthening a country's public health pesticide management practices. It identifies the key steps in the planning process and outlines a methodology for such analysis.(26/May/2005)
In English       HTML(9.42k)  

Frequently Asked Questions on the Proposed Revision of the International Health Regulations (IHRs)
These 21 questions have been made available to the countries for the revision process of the International Health Regulations (IHRs) currently in progress. The revisions will be discussed and ratified during the upcoming World Health Assembly in May 2005.(17/Jun/2004)
In English       WHO: IHR FAQs  
en español     HTML(35.17k)  
en Français    OMS, Questions RSI  

Third Joint Meeting of the Networks for Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 26-28 February 2004)
The objectives of this yearly meeting were (a) to present and discuss subregional activities carried out by the EID surveillance networks; and (2) to identify commitments and activities for the period 2004/2005, taking into account the guidelines of the plans of action of each one of them. This page provides the executive summary and access to the 124-page report in PDF, with links to the individual chapters.(28/Feb/2004)
In English       HTML(14.42k)  
en español     HTML(16.37k)   PDF(4489.77k)  

CD44.R6: Primary Health Care in the Americas: Lessons Learned over 25 Years and Future Challenges
This resolution from the 44th PAHO Directing Council in 2003, taking into consideration the Declaration of Alma-Ata and past PAHO resolutions, sets forth the mandate of improving the quality of primary care in the Americas: more equitable access to health services, improved surveillance and information systems in this context, improved training for healthcare workers, a health promotion approach, better policy implementation, local community-based approaches and models, working towards the Millennium Development Goals, etc.(25/Sep/2003)
In English       CD44.R6  
en español     CD44.R6  
en Français    CD44.R6  
em Português CD44.R6  

Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control
This WHO guide is meant to instruct pest-control workers on how to safely and effectively administer residual insecticides. It was published in 2002 by WHO Communicable Disease Control, Prevention and Eradication as part of the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, to provide uniform international standards for administration of pesticides to eliminate insects/vectors that transmit disease in an indoor setting. This summary links to the full-text WHO report.(31/Dec/2002)
In English       HTML(4.4k)  

West Nile Virus Fact Sheet
This two-page fact sheet summarizes the basic facts about this emerging infectious disease: where it started, how it is spreading, its reservoirs and vectors, risks to humans, and recommendations for prevention and control. (PAHO document OPS/HCP/HCT/222/2002)(13/Sep/2002)
In English       HTML(8.13k)   WORDL(132.61k)   PDF(82.02k)  
en español     HTML(9.3k)   WORDL(131.58k)   PDF(78.55k)  
en Français    HTML(10.07k)   WORDL(131.58k)   PDF(82.7k)  
em Português HTML(8.86k)   PDF(81.94k)  

Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus (13 September 2002)
Due to the threatened spread of West Nile virus to the countries of the Region, the Program on Communicable Diseases has summarized some general guidelines as PAHO's recommendations on the surveillance of this disease, based on the proceedings and discussion in the "West Nile Virus Surveillance Workshop" organized by PAHO at CAREC in Trinidad and Tobago from 29 April to 3 May 2002. The guidelines’ objective is to timely detect West Nile virus activity in reservoir populations and vectors in order to institute the appropriate measures in terms of enhanced surveillance, transmission and vector control, as well as mass communication. (PAHO Document OPS/HCP/HCT/221/2002)(13/Sep/2002)
In English       HTML(20.9k)   WORDL(66.05k)   PDF(44.02k)  
en español     HTML(24.64k)   WORDL(66.05k)   PDF(44.02k)  
en Français    HTML(25.6k)   WORDL(70.66k)   PDF(50.85k)  
em Português HTML(24.73k)   PDF(49.59k)  

Drains & You: A Manual for Drainage Maintenance Workers
This manual is useful not only for drainage workers engaged in cleaning and repairing secondary drains, working for ministries and local governments, but also for the general public in making them aware of the role drains play in public health and safety. In the latter sense, it serves as a social-communication tool to raise community awareness of the general public of domestic-sanitation issues and their effect on public health. This page offers the entire manual for field use, with chapters downloadable in PDF.(30/Mar/2000)
In English       HTML(4.17k)