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Health Surveillance and Disease Management / Communicable Diseases / Antimicrobial Resistance

Annual Report of the Monitoring/Surveillance Network for Resistance to Antibiotics, 2004

(Brasilia, Brazil, 27–29 July 2005)

Informe anual 2004

Full Text (in Spanish, 115 pp, PDF, 22.4 Mb; chapter heading translated below for user orientation)
1. Executive Summary (text to right)
2. Terms, Abbreviation, and Symbols
3. Introduction
4. Information from the Countries


Costa Rica


5. Results of the Performance Evaluation of the Coordinating Institutions of the National Networks
5.1 National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens (NLEP), Health Canada, Enteric Bacteria: Salmonella Spp., Shigella Spp., Vibrio cholerae
5.2 National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas / INEI), Ministry of Health of Argentina. Enteric and Non-Enteric Bacteria
6. Recommendations from the Annual Meeting of the Monitoring/Surveillance Network for Resistance to Antibiotics
7. List of Participants
Resistance Surveillance: Species to Watch and Antibiotics to Use as of 2005—Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms in the Laboratory

Other Annual Reports
2003   |   2001   |   2000

PAHO Links
Antimicrobial Resistance |
Diarrheal/Enteric Diseases|
Emerging/Reemerging Diseases |
Food Safety  |   Campylobacter |
Salmonella   |   Shigella

WHO Links
Drug Resistance |  Food Safety |
Pharmaceutical Products |
Campylobacter | Salmonella | Shigella

Executive Summary

The Annual Meeting of the Surveillance Network for Resistance to Antibiotics began with words of welcome from the local authorities. In the working sessions, Dr. Cristian Trigoso of Bolivia showed the surveillance results for resistance to antibiotics from the different countries, emphasizing the progress made in surveillance of resistance to antibiotics in Bolivia. Subsequently, there was a description of the existing surveillance network in Brazil, with remarks made on both the progress and the current weaknesses of the surveillance system.

Considering the importance of training in the development of surveillance networks, a list of training activities werecarried out since the start of the surveillance network in 1996–1997: first, training on the identification and determination of the susceptibility of antibiotics vis-à-vis enteric diseases (Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae) and subsequently, in quality assurance for the same identification and determination of the susceptibility of antibiotics in other species currently subject to surveillance (these appear in Table 1 of the report). A total of 15 courses were offered in 8 countries in quality assurance as it relates to the antibiotics listed on the chart.

The results of the performance evaluation in the participating countries were displayed, via the shipment of unknown enteric species sent by the National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens (NLEP), Health Canada; of enteric and non-enteric species sent by the Laboratory of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas / INEI), Ministry of Health, Argentina; of the quality-assurance system set up by SIREVA for pneumococci, Haemofilus influenzae and meningococci; and of the system established for Neisseria gonorrhea by the Institute of Public Health (Instituto de Salud Pública / ISP) of Chile.

There was an in-depth discussion of the problems faced by the countries with regard to compliance with the quality-assurance standards established by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS). In this regard, results were displayed from a survey on the subject carried out in Brazil, with results of supervisory visits to 27 laboratories in 8 countries.

The presentations included a description of different outbreaks of bacterial etiology in the Region in 2003 and 2004: an community outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus in Uruguay; hospital infection by Enterococci resistant to vancomycin (EVR) in Paraguay; and an outbreak of Clostridium difficile in Canada.

At the closing, participants were informed of the advances taking place to improve the WHONET system; of the progress being made to facilitate practical use of the antibiotic chart for Campylobacter spp.; of the new information system on hospital-acquired infection and on microbiological data, presented by the National Agency of Health Surveillance (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária / ANVISA), Brazil; and the new protocol for the surveillance of meningococcal diseases to be implemented by the South American countries.

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