Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases,
Region of the Americas
Vol. 5, No. 4 (11 February 2008)
Main Updates index
Jungle Yellow Fever (JYF) in Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Brazil: In 2007 and the beginning of 2008, Brazil reported an intense and extensive epizootic of Jungle Yellow Fever in an area encompassing 6 states (Goiás, the Federal District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Tocantins, and São Paulo). The State Health Departments have confirmed the epizootic based on laboratory and clinical epidemiological criteria. In the past two months, 26 confirmed human cases were reported in 3 federal states (Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, and the Federal District); 13 of the patients died. The affected areas have high vaccination coverage. Nevertheless, as part of ongoing control measures, health authorities have intensified vaccination for people living in or traveling to affected areas.
Paraguay: On 15 January 2008, the national health authorities of Paraguay reported their first confirmed cases of Jungle Yellow Fever. One of the cases was confirmed using molecular techniques; the other four, by epidemiological nexus. As of 11 February 2008, 4 other suspected cases of JYF have been reported. All the confirmed cases reported by the national health authorities come from a rural area of San Pedro Department in the northern part of the country. National health authorities have intensified epidemiological surveillance for the detection and investigation of suspected cases, and yellow fever vaccination for people living in or traveling to the affected area who have no previous vaccination history.
Argentina: In January 2008, the national health authorities of Argentina reported finding 17 dead monkeys in Piñalito Park, San Pedro Department, Misiones Province. On 4 February 2008, yellow fever was confirmed in one of the primates using molecular techniques. Although there is high vaccination coverage in the area, national health authorities have intensified vaccination for people living in or traveling to the affected area who have no previous vaccination history.
Recommended Strategy: Currently, the recommended strategy for vaccination against yellow fever is to focus on protecting the population living in or traveling to areas with risk of transmission, where epizootics or human cases were recently reported, thus avoiding massive vaccination and re-vaccination.
- Secretariat of Health Surveillance, Ministry of Health (Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde / SVS/MS), Brazil: Surtos e emergências em saúde pública, febre amarela (Outbreaks and Public Health Emergencies, Yellow Fever, in Portuguese)
- Directorate of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health and Environment of the Nation (Dirección de Epidemiología / DIREPI, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación), Argentina: Boletines (Bulletins, in Spanish)
- Summary of yellow fever cases and deaths reported to PAHO: PAHO Yellow Fever Page
Source: Information from the countries received by:
- PAHO-Brazil from the Secretary of Health Surveillance (Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde / SVS), Ministry of Health (Ministério da Saúde / MS), Brazil.
- PAHO-Paraguay from the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social / MSPBS), Paraguay.
- PAHO-Argentina from the Directorate of Epidemiology (Dirección de Epidemiología / DIREPI), Ministry of Health and Environment of the Nation (Ministerio de Salud de la Nación), Argentina.