PAHO - Millennium Development Goals
Untitled Document
Millennium Development Goals
Untitled Document

Technical Areas


Technical Areas

Working on MDG 6


HIV/AIDS (target 8 see below)


Area of Family and Community Health



HIV/AIDS Unit more>>


Dr. Carol Vlassof

Unit Chief,


Regional HIV/STI Plan for the Health Sector 2006-2015

Within the framework of the PAHOs Regional HIV/AIDS/STI Plan, five critical lines of action constitute the specific strategies to be undertaken by health authorities in the Americas to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015. The critical lines of action include: strengthening health sector leadership and stewardship, fostering the engagement of civil society, designing and implementing effective, sustainable HIV/AIDS/ STI programs, and building human resource capacity.  more>>


“3 by 5” Plan

PAHO participated and achieved the goals of the joint World Health Organization and United Nations global strategy aimed at helping low- and middle-income countries provide treatment to 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2005. The plan supports global leadership, alliances and advocacy; provides urgent, sustained country support; simplified and standardized tools for delivering antiretroviral therapy; creating an effective, reliable supply of medicines and diagnostics; and rapidly identifying and reapplying new knowledge and success. more>>


Stigma Eradication

Combating the HIV epidemic requires addressing issues of stigma and discrimination related to HIV status and sexual orientation. PAHO is at the forefront at the regional level by promoting tolerance... more>>



Message of Mr. Elias A. Saca

Pres. of El Salvador for UNGASS 2006

watch video>>


“Advocacy” challenges of the epidemic in L.A. & the Caribbean.

watch video>>



MALARIA & other Diseases


Health Surveillance & Disease Management



Disease Prevention and Control



Dr. John Ehrenberg

Unit Chief,



Great progress in the cessation and reversal of malaria incidence in the Americas has been accomplished through strategic planning for the region. Effective collaborative efforts in terms of technical support for program implementation, resource mobilization, and initiatives underline current advancement.



The Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Anti-malarial Drug Resistance (RAVREDA)/ Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) which covers 8 nations in the Amazon region with financial support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) more>>



Global Plan to Stop TB, 2006—2015, 

Is an integral evaluation of the actions and the resources necessary in order to create a strategy to detain TB and execute an impact over the world burden of TB and to advance the goals of the world association Stop TB Partnership for 2015. More>>


Addressing Poverty in TB Control: Options for National TB Control Programs
Focuses on WHO's commitment to the promotion of equity and pro-poor policies in its disease prevention and control activities based on the recognition of poverty as a major barrier to health and health care. The document addresses the integration of pro-poor measures in TB control programs and offers guidance for national TB control programs on the practical issues involved and options for action. More>>


Regional Interprogrammatic Meeting on TB/HIV

had as its overall objective to speed up effective joint response in the Americas on the part of TB and HIV/AIDS programs to the epidemic of tuberculosis associated with HIV. More>>


International Workshop on Tuberculosis Control in Prisons

Sponsored by the PAHO Regional Program on Tuberculosis, in collaboration the Gorgas TB Initiative (University of Alabama at Birmingham), held a workshop on tuberculosis control in prisons/penitentiaries targeted at prison wardens and heads of national TB programs in Central American and Caribbean countries. Other countries of the Region participated to share their experiences. More>>







Regional Situation Analysis

Target 7 Of the 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean that have reported on HIV/AIDS, 11 now have an incidence of over 1%, including five with rates of over 2%, with Haiti’s over 5%. Eight of the 11 high-incidence nations in the region are in the Caribbean. It is estimated that, as of 2004, a total of 2.4 million people were infected in Latin America and the Caribbean, 21% of them living in the Caribbean, a significant increase compared to 2002.

Health targets  Health Indicators




Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS



HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years
Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate
Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years

* target directly related to health


In just a few years, the AIDS epidemic has swept away decades of investment in public health, in particular through its strong impact on mortality rates and the related decrease in life expectancy in several of the highest-incidence countries. This represents a formidable challenge for most of the countries with high infection rates, especially for prevention and treatment measures.


Looking beyond the national averages, even in countries with a low prevalence rate at the national level, there are specific population groups that contain subpopulations with high prevalence levels, in particular certain cities where there are population segments consisting of drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men, who have become, as a group, one of the main sources of heterosexual transmission.


However, the pattern of infection overall in the Region is no longer that of an epidemic clearly centering on transmission by men having sex with other men but is now shifting towards women in all the countries of the region, the result being a rise in perinatal transmission rates. There is also a “rejuvenation” of the epidemic, as half of all new cases of HIV infection have occurred in the population aged 15-24, a change from the tendency seen in the first half of the 1990s, when cases were concentrated among those aged from 30 to 39. Adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups. Gender inequities have also led to a “feminization” of the epidemic and a shift in the male/female ratio of AIDS cases. In some places, such as Haiti, Dominica, Saint Lucia and Jamaica, the ratio is close to 1:1, while overall in the Region in the 1990s, there were 4 cases of AIDS in men for each female case.


In some countries of the region, it is clear that there is still widespread ignorance about  HIV/AIDS among young people. It is estimated that between a quarter and one half of adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 in Guatemala, Peru, Haiti and Brazil are unaware that a person with HIV may show no symptoms of AIDS until some time has passed. The evidence reveals an enormous gap between a general awareness that the virus and disease exist and the fuller knowledge required to make more informed decisions. 


The use of condoms is considered to be the best way of avoiding infection, but it is still limited even among people who have high-risk sex in countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the greatest challenges for the countries in the region. An expansion of activities in this field is therefore a matter of the utmost urgency.





  Health targets    Health Indicators
Target 8* Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases







Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course)

* target directly related to health


Target 8




Twenty-one PAHO/WHO member countries report that the active transmission of malaria is occurring in some areas. Generally speaking, these areas are less developed and exhibit marked differences from the rest of the country or territory.


In 2003, about 850,000 cases of malaria were recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The countries reporting the largest absolute number of malaria cases were Brazil and the countries of the Andean subregion, accounting between them for about 82% of all cases, although the highest risk of transmission is found in the subregion that includes French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname, where parasitic incidence exceeded 200 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in that same year.




Tuberculosis is another of the diseases whose incidence is expected to have been reduced by 2015. In Latin America and the Caribbean, it is estimated that there were 370,000 tuberculosis sufferers in 2002. Of these, some 200,000 were infectious cases. Over 150 people died each day from the disease. Most tuberculosis sufferers were young adults at the most productive stage of their lives, with five women falling ill for every eight men.


To make significant progress in reducing the prevalence of this disease, it will be necessary to increase diagnostic coverage and expand directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) programmes, which was launched in 1994 in the Region. Peru, Haiti and Bolivia are the countries with the largest numbers of tuberculosis cases in Latin America and the Caribbean; the incidence of the disease is attributed mainly to the social conditions and poverty of these countries



PAHO - Millennium Development Goals
PAHO - Millennium Development Goals
Develop a global partnership for development Ensure environmental sustainability Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases Improve maternal health Reduce child mortality Promote gender equality and empower women Achieve universal primary education Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger